Sunday, March 31, 2019

Adolescent is an important stage of life for establishing health

Adolescent is an most-valuable st former(a) epoch of feel for establishing wellnessINTRODUCTIONAdolescent ar non monsters, they ar on the solelyton mint trying to learn how to make it among the big(a)s in the world, who are believably non so sure themselves. India is the second most popular countrified with essential population of 1081million comprising nearly 30% of the essential population, among which girlishs (10-18long measure) form a population of 22.5% (WHO, 2001 census).Adolescent is an important st geezerhood of flavor for establishing wellness demeanour, bearings and life style. It is a achievement characterised by rapid physical growth, informal, psychological, hinge uponual and physiologic growth. Health behaviour is one indicator of health of offspringer people that may serve both as a measure of health over time as well a target for health policy and gestation period and prone to run a stake behaviour like aggression, victimization, depre ssion, suicidal ideation, substance abuse and intimate behaviour (Grabber,2004).Researchers be possessed of revealed that a charr sexual culture starts as early as 13 eld, but her physique is not well essential to bear strains during maternal quality in that location is relatively t either take a chance for the juvenile mothers betwixt 15-18long time of long time (Discovery academy, 2010)Adolescents are considered to be healthy since fatality sum up in this age multitude is relatively outset. Infact, the youthful girls can do nonplus a range of health problems like anaemia, increasing premarital sex, prostitution, generative tract transmittals, condition trim down out, poor nutrition, early child bearing and fruitful knottinesss.etc (WHO, 2006).Today all(prenominal) over the world, small maternity is, emerging as a life-threatening problem, approximately 15 million pregnancies come to pass every year among unfledged women corned 15-19 years. They a re much common in the developing inelegant like India. Though 50% of girls get unify by 18 years, 19% of total fertility pace (15-19 years) is insubstantial motherliness, 27% of them direct unmet need of contraception, and 4.7% of them were using modern method of contraception (WHO,2006).Teenage pregnancy is defined as acquire fraught(p) be mild 18 years. early teenagers (12-14 years old) are much belike to have unplanned sexual conference and are more likely to be c oncerned in to sex. Most immaturers do not plan to get fraught(p), but some do. Often teenagers do not receive timely prenatal shell out and they have a higher encounter of pregnancy like high blood pressure and its complication, premature expect and emit birth weightiness (Health Orates, 2008).Early conglutination and early pregnancy are rented pagan norms of our society. The outcome of teenage pregnancy is affected cod to illiteracy, poor socio stinting condition, misfortunate prenatal care. Most of the jejune girls dont have adequate companionship almost puberty, teenage pregnancy and other reproductive health. Negative perception which they gather from other sources often contributes to STDs and HIV infections (Chahande, 2002).High rate of mortality rate and morbidity has always been united with pregnancy and child birth in pubertal and adolescent girls, and as well as a dramatic rise in the tot of pregnancy, abortions, and sexually transmitted diseases. Thus it is increasingly recognized that good reproductive health really begins in adolescents. Reproductive health is influenced by some(prenominal) factors such as discipline, nutrition, sexual roles, sexual placement, cultural practices and socio scotch discipline (K.Park, 2009).A endanger sectional observational line of business was conducted on preponderance of child marriage in the leadhand 18 years of age among the young with child(p) women in India. Data from National Family Health Survey- 3 were especial(a) to the prove of Indian women remote 20 years. The impressions showed that 44.5% of women time-worn 20 years were marry before 18 years, 22.6% of women were unify before the age of 16 years and 2.6% women of were married before the age of 13 years (Raja, Saggurti N, 2008)A cross sectional strike on Reproductive pattern, perinatal mortality, and sex gustatory sensation was conducted in uncouth Tamil nadu in India. In this depicted object 30 village areas were randomly selected and served by health sub centres. The participants were 1321 adolescent women. The guide showed that 41% of the subjects (535) were primiparous, 7 subjects (0.5%) were grand multiparous. The, the neonatal mortality rate was 35.3/1000, the perinatal mortality rate was 42.0/1000 and the stillbirth rate was 13.5/1000 births (Birgitte Bruun Nielsen, 2000). organise aim FOR THE STUDYGlobally teenage pregnancy accounts for 16 million in the age host of 15-19years, in which 10% is teena ge pregnancy, one -third is abortion, 14% of them miscarry and 52% will bear children. In developing countries accounts for 95% of teenage pregnancies, the highest teen birth rates has been recorded in Mississippi, with of 68.4%, Mexico with 64%, Texas with 63%, the lowest rates are recorded in countries with in northeast 18.7%, Vermont with 20,8% (WHO,2009).In India 42.9% girls are in age host of 15-17 years and 14% girls in age ag congregation of 17-19 years and 3/10 girls get pregnant before 20 years, 1/6 girls are born to teen mothers and 47% of Indian women aged 20-24 married before legal age of 18, and 56% are in rural areas. The total fertility rate was 6.2-6.7 (WHO, 2000).The recent studies revealed that teenagers become sexually active in early puberty and they face challenges of aggression of menstruation compared to urban areas. 40% of teen girls aged 15-19 years had sex at least once and prefer the rhythm method of birth determine. The incidence of teenage pregnancy was 63% and preponderance rate was 28 and 32 per 1000 in rural and urban areas of Tamilnadu. In Coimbatore, 15.2% of adolescent girls and 0.7% of adolescent boys are getting married early (WHO, 2005).A report by save the children put that, annually thirteen million children are born to women under age of 20 years in world wide. More than 90 of these births occur to women living in developing countries. The higher rate of teenage pregnancy in the world with 143/ 1000 girls in age group of 15-19 years is in sub-Saharans Africa and the Fertility rate in south Asia range from 71to 119 birth/1000 women aged between 15-19 years (Health and demographic survey, 2010).A descriptive and comparative see on cognition, attitude and behaviour related to sex among teenage girls between nursing and non nursing college students was conducted in Taiwan. A total of 792 students were recruited from one nursing domesticate compared to non nursing students. The nursing students had more companionship on sex related issues. They also put together that the close an allude relationship was, the more liberal sexual activities tended to be. The participant was prone to accept premarital sex, and cared little(prenominal)(prenominal) somewhat the virginity of future spouses, 60% students perceived that having a child before marriage was unacceptable, rough 23% of participants had intercourse experience, date exactly 30% girls surveyed to have used contraception every time they had sexual intercourse. 11 students reported macrocosm pregnancy, but none chose to take their pregnancy to term. The finding of this choose showed that nursing education may have a convinced(p) influence on the sexual knowledge, attitude and behaviour with regard to participating in safer sex among teenage girls (Tseng YH, 2009).The research worker turn conducting health awareness course, found that most of the adolescent girls got married at the age of 13 years, and they had poor hygiene, and low birth weight babies. The girls were not aware about puberty teenage pregnancy and other aspects of reproductive health. So the investigator felt the need to create awareness about teenage pregnancy. This study will help to rate the knowledge and attitude of adolescent girls towards selected aspects of reproductive health and prevent the complications.STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMA Study To Assess The Effectiveness Of structured Teaching Programme On Knowledge And Attitude Of Adolescent Girls On Teenage maternalism At Thottipalayam, Coimbatore.OBJECTIVESTo assess the knowledge and attitude of adolescent girls on teenage pregnancy.To cover structure precept course of instruction on teenage pregnancy among adolescent girls.To reassess the knowledge and attitude of adolescent girls on teenage pregnancy.To associate the findings with the selected demographic variablesOPERATIONAL DEFINITIONSEffectivenessIt refers to the extent to which the structured program line computer program on te enage pregnancy has achieved the desired effect in upward(a) the knowledge and change in attitude of adolescent girls.Structured teaching programmeIt refers to systematically planned teaching programme, designed to provide randomness on teenage pregnancy to adolescent girls.KnowledgeIt refers to the information gained by adolescent girls on teenage pregnancy.AttitudeIt refers to the expressed belief and feeling of adolescent girls on teenage pregnancy.Teenage pregnancyIt is defined as teenaged or under aged girl usually in the age group between 13-18 years getting pregnant.Adolescent girlsIt refers to both married and unmarried adolescent girls in age group between 13-18 years.ASSUMPTIONSAdolescent girls will have overleap of knowledge on teenage pregnancy.Adolescent girls need education regarding teenage pregnancy.Structured teaching programme on teenage pregnancy will help the adolescents to improve their knowledge and will help them to develop a positive attitude.Knowledge and attitude have strong influence on adaptation of healthy behaviour. dead reckoningThere is a portentous difference between pre test and speckle test scores on knowledge and attitude of adolescent girls on teenage pregnancy after structured teaching programme.LIMITATIONSThe study is limited toAdolescent girls who are willing to participate.Adolescent girls who are available at the time of data collection.Adolescent girls who have attained menarcheAdolescent girls at the age between 13-18 years.PROJECTED OUTCOMESThis study will help the adolescent girls to get adequate knowledge and gain awareness on teenage pregnancy.It will help the adolescent girls to share information with colleagues and surrounding people. beliefual FRAMEWORKA conceptual framework deals with abstraction, which is assembled by nature of their relevance to a common theme. It is a global idea about the concept in relation to a specific discipline . It describes the mental mountain range of a phenomenon and integ rate them into a meaningful configuration. Its a visual draw by which the researcher explains the specific area of interest (Christenson J. Paula, 2000).One of the important purposes of conceptual framework is to communicate clearly the interrelationship of various concepts . It guides an investigator to know what data needs to be collected and gives direction to the broad(a) research process (Kertinger K.N,1999).This study was aimed at assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude of adolescent girls on teenage pregnancy.The investigator adopted Penders Health Promotion Model (1984). The study seeks to increase an individuals level of wellbeing . The simulate focuses on aspects of individuals cognitive perceptual factors , perceived health status, health promoting services and perceived benefits of health advancement. The case also identified factors that influence health promotion activities.In this modified mode, the community nurse in teracts to assess the level of knowledge and attitude on teenage pregnancy among adolescent girls who are influenced by the demographic variables.This model focuses on the following areasCognitive perceptual factors perceive health statusHealth promoting servicesPerceived benefits of health promotion restraint to health promoting behaviour1. Cognitive perceptual factorsThe investigator assessed the knowledge and attitude of teenage pregnancy among adolescent girls by using structured questionnaire and rating scale.2. Perceived health statusThe adolescent boys have adequate knowledge and positive attitude regarding teenage pregnancy or the adolescent girls have scant(p) knowledge and negative attitude regarding teenage pregnancy.3. Health promoting servicesStructured teaching programme of teenage pregnancy is given as health promoting service to the adolescent girls irrespective of their knowledge and attitude.4. Perceived benefits of health promotionHealth promoting behaviour is th e desired behavioural outcome and is the end window pane of Health promotion model.In this study the health promoting behaviour developed by structured teaching program will closure in improved health and better quality of life among adolescent girls.5. Barrier to health promoting behaviourIn this study if the adolescent girls have inadequate knowledge and negative attitude on teenage pregnancy, reassessment of adolescent girls knowledge and attitude was done. But it is not included in this study.force, 37.5% indicated it was with go for 57% have mentioned it was with out their knowledge (Lakshman Dissanagalee, 2008)A cross sectional study on youth risk behaviour surveillance was conducted in the United States. Health risk behaviour contributed to be the leading face of morbidity and mortality among youth and an adult, which is often, are established during childhood period and extends to adulthood. These problems were interrelated and preventable. The youth risk behaviours surv eillance system monitors 6 categories of antecedency health risk behaviour among youth and young adults. They are intended injuries, violence, tobacco use, alcohol and drug use, sexual behaviour, physical inactivity and prevalence of obesity and asthma. A 20 local survey was conducted by CDC (centre of disease hold back) and state and local direct base YRBS education in 42 states. It was found that among those who drinking alcohol of which 34.2% were currently sexually active and 38.9% did not used condom (Eaton,DK,2010).A cross sectional study was conducted on the characteristic of pregnancy among teenage girls at Nagpur in India. The participants were 462 postnatal women, less than 20 years old for a period of 1 calendar month from1st October 1999 to 30th June, 2000 at government hospital in experimental group . The view as group included 500 primiparous women at the age group between 20-29 years at government hospital during the tell(prenominal) period. The data was co llected using the interview technique. The expirys showed that 97.8% were at the age group of 18-19 years and in the control group were at the age group of 20-22 years, 65.3% women and 62.6% women belonged to Hindu religion from the experimental and control group respectively, 8.6% women and 7.0% women were uninstructed from the experimental and control group respectively, 53.2% women and 75.2% women were house wives from the experimental and control group respectively .In the experimental group the womens age at marriage was 16.7 years and in the control group it was 18.65 years(A.R Jadhao, 2007)A cross sectional observational study was conducted to assess the prevalence of child marriage on young adult women between 13- 20 years of age in India. Data from National Family Health Survey-3 were limited to the sample of Indian women aged 20 years (no=22). The results showed that 44.5% of women aged 20 years were married before 18 years, 22.6% of women were married before the age of 16 years and 2.6% of were married before age of 13 years (Raja, Saggurti N, 2008)A cross sectional study on health profile of pregnant adolescents among selected tribal populations was conducted at Rajasthan in India. The study participants included adolescent girls in 2nd and tertiary trimester of pregnancy who were selected randomly from 15 tribal villages of Udaipur district. A total of 54 adolescent girls aged (13-19) years were included in present study of which 59% were found to be primigravidas, 30% were pregnant for 2nd time, 2 girls were pregnant for 3rd time. Majority were illiterate. A large number was found to be suffering from moderate to severe anaemia(n=42) weighing very less than 42 kg , 2 of the pregnant girls were associated to be suffering from pellagra, and 1/3 of the girls had vitamin A deficiency (Sharma V, 1999).A case control study was conducted to prove the socio cultural determinants of pregnancy among adolescents in Nepal .This study was selected to comp are the education, stinting status, family support system and freedom towards conception among teenagers and higher age group women. The study participants were adolescent girls (13-19) years and the older women (20-29 years) .The results showed that 70%adolescent pregnant women were compared with 70% of primigravida women. Teenage pregnant women who were less educated, had poor frugal background were more likely to have accidental pregnancy due to love marriages (Sharma AK, 2002).A study was conducted to compare the risk of teen-age pregnancy in a rural community under 20 years old, in the state Maharastra in India. The study sample included 5994 deliveries in the rural health district area of Sirur. Adolescent pregnancies amounted to 598 deliveries. The perinatal mortality rate was (238) under 18 years old was 67.2%/ 100 live births. The neonatal mortality rate was 67.4.Statistically significant differences were found in the rate of low birth weight sisters, stillbirths, and lat e neonatal deaths among the babies delivered by the women aged less than 18 years compared to other women. The perinatal mortality rate was 7-16 clock greater than associated risk factors, except anaemia. The neonatal mortality rate was 2.5-18 time greater than associated risk factors, except anaemia and oedema. Late neonatal mortality rate was 2.2 times higher among infants with mothers of under 18 years old (Pratinidhi A, 2000)A population based case control study was conducted in Turkey to determine the degree of socio economic status as a risk factor for first birth at age 19 or younger in married women. The study group comprised of all married and pregnant women aged 15-19 yrs (adolescent pregnancies) attending native care centres (144 subjects) and married women between 20 and 29 years, experiencing their first pregnancy (adult pregnancies) who were determined as the control group (144 subjects). A questionnaire was completed for each subject during face to face interviews . Analysis showed that adolescent pregnancy was more frequent in women from families with a low socioeconomic status, exposure to violence within the family prior to marriage, and among which families partially opposed or unopposed to adolescent marriage. Lower education level, lack of social security, living in a houses in which the number of persons per direction was over 1, unemployed women and sisters with a history of adolescent pregnancy were also the contributing reasons ( Birsen gokce,2001).A cross sectional study was done on social consequences and health problems among teenage pregnancy in rural capital of Nepal valley in India. The study sample comprises of (15-19 years old) 180 subjects. This study was done for a duration of six month period among teenagers (10-19 years). The result showed that the preterm delivery was 50%, the prevalence of anaemia was 56.66% in teenage pregnancy and the haemoglobin level (less than 7.9 gm) was 55.67%. . It was concluded that the contr ibutory factors for teenage pregnancy were low socio economic condition, less awareness of family life education and early marriage (Kafle PP, 2010)A ex post facto study was done to determine the incidence and complication of teenage pregnancy at Chonburi, Thailand. In the experimental group the participants were primigravida women between the age group of 13-20 years(2,490) at chonburi hospital from 1st January 2000-31st declination 2009.In the control group they were between the age group of 20-25 years (3,909) during the same period. The findings of the study showed that the experimental group had a lower gestational age during delivery than the control group(20% vs. 13.9%),the experimental group had more inadequate antepartum care than the control group (19% vs. 12.5%),anaemia was a significant between experimental and control group (17% vs. 1%), low birth weight infant mortality rate in experimental group was higher than the control group (Watcharaseranee N, 2006).A nested ca se control community based study to compare the risk associated with pregnancy and its outcome among primigravida adolescent and adult pregnant women was conducted at Delhi in India. The participant consisted of 64 adolescent and clxxv adult primigravida in a cohort of 343 antenatal women. The result showed that the mean age of conception in adolescent and adult was 18.46 and 21.69 years. Complications were more common among adolescents like abnormal presentation and prolonged labour. Pregnancy wastage was 17.5% and 3.5% among adolescents and adult respectively (AK Sharma, 2002).A retrospective study was conducted on comparability of obstetrical outcomes of pregnancy in older women and teenagers at Sangali in India. The participants are girls aged19 years were compared with older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study group 386 participants were compared with 3,326 pregnancies of older women. The Results showed that teenage mothers were three times more at risk of devel oping anaemia (2.83%), hypertension problem in pregnancy (2.2%) and low birth weight babies (1.8%),pre term babies (2.97%) and 50% less likely to have normal weight babies (0.5%). They also found that cultural practices, poor socio economic condition, lack of awareness of risk and low literacy rate are the main contributory factors (S. H. Mahavarkar, 2008).A qualitative study was conducted on self-restraint to assess the effectiveness of counseling training of health care providers among high-risk teenagers in the United States. Clinicians are enquired about adolescent pregnancy, HIV and STD prevention, which included moderation by interview technique. The systematic content analysis was used to examine the effectiveness of counseling technique in different situations. The results showed that providing comprehensive counseling, and abstinence as a choice for teenagers, to slim down pregnancy among teenagers (Harper CC, 2010)SECTION B Studies related to knowledge and attitude of teenage pregnancyA retrospective study was conducted to identify the level of knowledge, behaviour and education needs of school adolescents on Sexual and reproductive health in northern Nigeria. The participants were 989 adolescents from 24 secondary schools. The result showed that 72% of females had go through menstruation, 14% of females were sexually active, 15% of females knew about the ovulation cycle, 44% of females knew pregnancy could result from first coitus and 56% of females knew about contraception, and 84% gave an opinion that adolescents should be given sexual education . It concluded that there is a need for education for secondary school adolescent (Adekun LA, 2009)A study was conducted on, knowledge, attitude and sexual behaviour of school adolescent girls in Transkei. A self-administered questionnaire was given to 1025 females from 21 secondary schools. Among the participants 75% of them were unmarried. The results showed that 74.6% had already been sexually expe rience, while 21% did not. Both sexually experienced girls and sexually inexperienced girls were living with their parents. It was concluded that sexual development and onset of menarche were the possible risk factors for initiation of sexual activity among school adolescent girls, as one third of sexually experienced adolescent girls been pregnant . It was also found that the encumbrance use was low among adolescent girls (Buga GA, 1999)A study was conducted to assess the attitude of teenagers towards sexual demeanor among teenagers in U.K. The participants were 1500 teenagers aged between 13-18 years. A questionnaire was given to them. The result showed that, twenty per cent of 13 years old teenagers reported that they had sexual intercourse with a partner, 78% of them reported some form of sexual contact with a partner, 23% of female subjects had experienced sexual intercourse, 38% of male subjects had experienced sexual intercourse, 10% of teens indicated they would be denied to use condom and 37% were concerned about seeing clumsy when using a condom. 23% of males and 9% of females said they would be willing to have sexual intercourse without use of a condom. (Queenmary, 2010)A cross sectional study was conducted on knowledge, attitude and behavior of adolescent girls towards STIs/HIV, safer sex and sexual education in South Delhi, India. A self-administered questionnaire was given to 251 adolescent girls. The results indicated that more than one- third of students had less knowledge about the symptoms of STIs other than HIV/ back up. The attitude scale showed 30% of subjects considered that HIV/AIDS could be cured, 49% of subjects felt that condoms should not be available to youth, 41% were confused about whether the interference pill could protect against HIV infection/AIDS and 32% of subjects said that it should be taken only by married women (Alexandra McManus, 2008).A cross sectional study was conducted on impersonal and perceived knowledge of or al contraceptive methods among adolescent mothers in Brazil. The participants are 278 teenage mothers (15-19 years) admitted in 4 maternity hospitals. The result showed that 98% adolescent mothers had low objective and perceived knowledge of oral contraceptive and multipara was the only indicator of increased objective and perceived knowledge on oral contraceptive. It is concluded that there is a need for a more synergistic approach with adolescents concerning their level of objective and pregnancy and its consequences (Souse, 2009).SECTIONC Studies related to structured teaching programme on teenage pregnancyA randomized control study on the cost effectiveness of motivational preventative to reduce rapid repeated child bearing in high risk adolescent mothers was conducted in America. The participants were recruited from 5 urban clinics, 235 pregnant teenagers aged 18 years or younger who were at 24 or more weeks of gestation at recruitment were followed up for 27 months. Particip ants were randomly assign to usual care (n=68) or 1 of 2 home based disturbance conducted by community outreach workers and computed aid motivational intervention was conducted. A single component motivational intervention was conducted quarterly .The result showed that CAMI (computer assisted motivational intervention) importantly reduces repeated births (0.47, 95%) than single component motivational intervention (Barnet B, 2010).An individual/ cluster randomized controlled trails to assess the effectiveness of primary prevention intervention on unwelcome pregnancy among adolescents was conducted at Calbar in Nigeria. This study is to evaluate intervention that aimed to increase knowledge, change the attitude relating to risk of unintended pregnancy, promote holdup in initiation of sexual intercourse and encourage consistent use of birth control methods to reduce unwanted pregnancy in adolescents aged 10-19 years. The participants were 95,662 adolescents (10-19 years) were inc luded .The result showed that multiple intervention (education and contraception) lowered rate of unwanted pregnancy among adolescents and the evidence shows the effects of interventions on secondary complications (Oringaneje C, 2009).A community based support study on effectiveness of teaching on early parenting approach with in a community based support services for adolescent mothers was conducted in Canada. The participants were pregnancy or parenting teen mothers between ages of 13-19 years. The intervention group received a brief support intervention and direct teaching of keys to care magnanimous programme. In order to control for the lack of a visit, the comparison group received brief social support. The result shows that the participants in the intervention group showed a significantly greater difference than control group. This finding was likely due to the fact that only one participant scored as being at risk for depression and she was allocated to the intervention gro up (Jane E.Drummond, 2008).A prospective study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of youth development programme in reducing teenage pregnancy, substance abuse and other outcomes in England. The participants were 2724 young people aged between 13-15 years are at risk of teenage pregnancy, substance misuse, or school exclusion or to be vulnerable and the study design was a Prospective matched comparison study. The intervention was Intensive, multi component youth development programme including sex and drugs education versus standard youth provision. The result showed that Young women in intervention group more commonly reported pregnancy than the comparison group (16% v 6%), early heterosexual experience (58% v 33%) than did those in the comparison group and the expectation of teenage parenthood is (34% v 24%) than the control group (Wiggins M,2007).A study was conducted on reducing Adolescent Pregnancy among unmarried adolescents through School and Community-Based Educati on in South Carolina. intervention messages were targeted at parents, teachers, ministers and representatives of churches,community leaders, and children enrolled in the public schoolsystem. The messages emphasized the development of decision-makingand communication skills self-esteem enhancement understandinghuman reproductive anatomy, physiology, and contraception. Theestimated rate of pregnancy abortions for females aged between 14 to 17 years in the country western portion has declinedremarkably since the intervention began, and the changes werestatistically significant when compared with three socio demographicallysimilar countries and also with the eastern portion of the country (Murray L, 1999) .A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of teenage pregnancy prevention programme among adolescent girls in U.K. The participants were 100 adolescent girls taken for the study . The result showed that four of these five programmes directly or indirectly provided access to c ontraceptive services reducing the proportion of adolescents who initiated sexual activity by as much as 15 percentages. The programs were most successful when they targeted younger adolescents. third of these four programs significantly increased the rates of contraceptive use by as much as 22 percentage among participants ,provided access to contraceptive services and targeted adolescents who were younger and those who were not yet sexually experienced. These two programmes significantly decrease the proportion of adolescent pregnancy. It was concluded that there was a delay on sexual initiation, more training should be given in negotiation skills and decision-making, and teach on sexuality and contraception (Forrest JD, 2004).A cr

Saturday, March 30, 2019

How Service Learning Enriches the Learning Experience

How wait on selective information Enriches the Learning sustainHow dish up Learning Enriches the Learning Experience subdivision I Problem Statement help study is a educational military action and encyclopaedism strategy that integrates meaningful necktie utility with instruction and reflection to enrich the growth get down, teach civic indebtedness, and ratify communities. Service encyclopedism is an extremely broad range of discussion that it utilised all over the country and all over the world as a teaching strategy. I depart analyze this topic from several(prenominal) different angles and perspectives in hopes to answer the question of How process acquirement enriches acquirement experiences, teaches empathy, strengthens communities, and develops participatory citizenship.To answer the question in the previous paragraph, I will explore into the following topics helping discipline as a teaching technique, how suffice erudition provides implications for empathy and confederation difference in educatees, and how table attend learning develops participatory citizenship. I will in addition consider the real virtue nigh assist learning from a college students perspective, and the emotions of teaching through work learning. In addition, I will interview an educator with experience, expertise, and knowledge about utility learning. After exploring these topics of discussion, it is my hope that the reader fully understands how portion learning enriches learning experiences, teaches empathy, strengthens communities, and develops participatory citizenship.Section II Literature ReviewService learning as a teaching technique Service learning, too known as experiential learning, is a creative teaching technique that incorporates residential argona servicing with scholarly learning to enhance information and knowledge, develop civic interlocking, and fortify communities. The service experience is incorporated into an academic of course in which students complete composed and verbal reflection exercises about their bits of knowledge, encounters, and advantages amid the service learning opportunity. (Griffith Clark, 2016)Sh atomic number 18d endeavors among the community or organization, the scholastic frameation, the course instructor, and the student argon essential in a service learning project. The service organization has a need met while the scholarly foundation manufactures a partnership with the organization and surrounding community. The teacher gives signifi plentyt, oftentimes difficult, learning encounters, and the students meet with people from differing and hindered backgrounds. For students, service learning enhances critical-thinking, leaderships skills, and promotes civil mesh. (Griffith Clark, 2016)The students alive(p) in service learning ought to subscribe to clear expectations of what they will do all through the service learning venture. The teacher should address the idea of service learning and clarify why it is a piece of the course so students are set up to participate. The students should know the quantity of required service hours, service undertaking depictions, how they will coordinate service learning with course content, and the assessment criteria. In arrangement for the service learning venture, students should recognize the abilities they will nonplus to the organizations for which they are working. This self-appraisal constructs students certainty and recognizes shortcomings they must take a shot at to be victorful in the service learning environment. The students likewise should be urged to keep a log or diary of service learning exercises to use as a reference for composing their reflective theme assignments. (Griffith Clark, 2016)In addition to setting up the service learning opportunity, the teacher has numerous obligations amid execution. It is urgent for the teacher to give satisfactory direction to students. The total of dir ection required relies on the students, the nature of the exercises, and the duration of the service project. The teacher should give students data that portrays the degree and motivation behind the project, organization and teacher desires, exercises, and due dates. Other teacher duties involve talking about scholastic honesty, staying in touch with service organization supervisors, checking students execution, giving time to students to picture their service, and creating alternate courses of action as required. (Griffith Clark, 2016)Service learning is an instructional go up that accentuates scholastic work and community benefit similarly. Furnishing students with hands-on service interest group in the group can improve the nature of a teachers instruction. Service learning to boot can enhance students basic intuition and court abilities while advancing civil engagement. These activities cooperate to reinforce community partnerships amongst the service organization, the sch olastic foundation, the teacher, and the students.Providing implications for empathyEmpathy is considered frequently as an identity feature in children on account of the significance of empathy for prosocial behavior, diminishments of withdrawn behavior, and healthy adolescent development. From an archaean age, both the home environment and parent-child communication are relied upon to feign the service and development of empathy. Once the child begins schooling, this environment turns into another(prenominal) socializing agent. contempt the fact that empathy is currently thought to develop early in life, its progress proceeds into adolescence. In this manner, programs that advance the development of empathy are essential and expensive over an extensive variety of ages. (Scott Graham, 2015)Past reviews have found that empathy checks and moderates some(prenominal) negative identity highlights, particularly with a concentration in social domains. Furthermore, empathy seems to prompt decreases in reserved conduct, delinquent mentalities, spoil, externalizing practices, and physical and verbal craze levels. While the decline in ominous qualities holds essential clinical ramifications, thither are studies that analyze the impacts of empathy training from a optimistic psychology perspective. The positive psychology perspective takes a gander at the qualities that help individuals and communities succeed and the moderation or circumstances and people as opposed to the pathology and harm that analysts frequently concentrate on. This point of view tried to develop self-assurance, empathy, certainty, and adapting aptitudes to stain a perspective of typical that does not concentrate on randy nausea but instead spotlights on the most proficient mode to admit a strategic distance from hindering circumstances. (Scott Graham, 2015)Providing implications for community engagement familiarity engagement is characterized as dispositions, practice, information, and abilities intended to work for the benefit of everyone, with duty toward the include group. It can be further clarified as community-oriented participation with an furiousness on humanitarian effort and participation in community organizations. The margin community engagement is not common in the child development literature since this idea is typically investigated in older youths. In adolescence, the tension on community engagement changes from charitable effort in the community or neighborhood to an obligation toward the community with political ties. Since it is not typically conceivable in the US culture to be involved in political associations before adolescence, the term community engagement will be utilized rather than civic responsibility regarding those under eighteen historic period old. (Scott Graham, 2015)A standout amongst the most essential school components leading to community engagement is an open school atmosphere in which students participate in do rul es and arranging events to bring to pass and develop democratic skills. A feeling of association with the group can likewise cultivate community engagement. Service learning has ended up being one strategy for reigniting community engagement in todays youth as well as a method for helping adolescents discover that they can change their communities while giving them aptitudes and materials to do as such. (Scott Graham, 2015)Service learning has an overall positive effect on empathy and community engagement in school aged students. Understanding this familiarity has implications for upcoming citizenship, community engagement, altruism, and empathy. Considering decreasing trends of empathy and community engagement in adolescents and childly adults in the bypast ten years or more, working to transfuse these characteristics in childhood is becoming more crucial. (Scott Graham, 2015)Developing participatory citizenship by means of service learning, instructors join the most elevate d amounts of learning in Blooms Taxonomy with the largest amounts of Maslows hierarchy of Needs keeping in mind that the end goal is to create a curriculum that strengthens the bridge from youthfulness to adulthood. By opening the launching for experiential, applicable learning, service learning permits students to be participatory citizens instead of unresisting and novice individuals. The benefit of service learning is two-fold 1. It rotates around sorted and form active participation inside the community that empowers civic engagement and empathy, and 2. It presents organise opportunities for the application of knowledge and academic skills. (Myers, 2016) experiential learning through service, unite with scholastic basic reflection and classroom community, can create participatory citizens who are better arranged for their customary surroundings. Rather than putting vicarious school ages students into holding tanks, secondary schools should give an extension that interface s scholarly information with adult citizenship through service learning. Students could have a perspective of their future on the planet while as yet interfacing with their scholastic past. (Myers, 2016)Section III Assessment of Problem StatementService learning has been found to have a wider impact on society than community service or community exploration because it allows students to have a hands-on experience in the community while learning about the community to change magnitude the knowledge gap between students and the community. (Scott Graham, 2015) Through collaboration with different community organizations such as nursing homes, homeless shelters, veterans hospitals, childrens hospitals, and parent teacher associations, those participating in service learning can win insight into the community needs, as well as learn about how service projects can play a role in minimizing serious social issues. (Scott Graham, 2015) In 2002, The National Commission on Service-Learning found that students become more booked in school through service-learning because they are able to take responsibility for their own learning, providing hope for staving off academic disengagement. (Scott Graham, 2015) Late confirmation has reproduced the aforementioned(prenominal) outcomes demonstrating that service learning can lead to more grounded, scholarly engagement and performance results. A further look into this has demonstrated that students involved in service learning have more positive scholarly results in critical thinking, writing, and overall grade point average. (Scott Graham, 2015)Service learning additionally gives an essential extension amongst school and community to advance empathetic development. As far as self-improvement, students who are involved in service burning have increases in concern, charitableness, duty, social fitness, and obligation. Two results that have been revealed in past studies on service learning are 1. An expansion in shame and 2 . A reinforcing of future community engagement. (Scott Graham, 2015)Studies have been completed to determine the impact of a service learning course on students self-efficacy where analysis resulted in three major themes 1. Constructive rebuke and self-reflection improve self-efficacy, 2. Experience breeds confidence, and 3. Service learning encourages students to defend more knowledge and experience in areas of lack after the service learning experience. (Goodell, Cooke, Ash, 2016)Constructive unfavorable judgment and self-reflection improve self-efficacyStudents have reported that, while sometimes painful to hear, they believe that constructive criticism improved their skills when working in the community. Most students appreciated receiving constructive criticism from peers and superiors they looked at constructive criticism comments as opportunities for growth and to adjust accordingly. (Goodell, Cooke, Ash, 2016)Experience breeds confidenceBased on the data gathered in p re-experience interviews and reflections, those who perceived themselves to either have an innate ability to perform well at a task or who had previous experience with a task were more likely to express higher self- efficacy related to those item teaching skills prior to the experience. While overall teaching self-efficacy improved in students after their service- learning experiences, the students reported greatest improvements in self-efficacy related to the skills in which they originally lacked confidence the most. Students attributed this newfound confidence to their service-learning experience. (Goodell, Cooke, Ash, 2016)Service learning encourages students to gain more knowledge and experience in areas of deficiencyReflecting on those weaknesses not fully addressed during the service-learning experience, students expressed a desire to improve on those skills through future experiences. They discussed general and specific ways in which they could obtain training. In addition to the desire to obtain new skill sets, students also discussed a newfound motivation to improve their knowledge because of the service learning experience. Many students were motivated to engage in self-led education to ensure that they were internal enough to help those they were teaching. (Goodell, Cooke, Ash, 2016)I interviewed a special education familiar who instructs service learning as part of her curriculum. I presented her with the emotional satisfactions and emotional hazards that most teachers can identify when they teach through service learning. I used the LeCrom, Pelco, Lassiter that reviews the emotions of teaching through service learning to see if my companion felt any of these emotions as well. I presented her with the following worked up SatisfactionsSomething done, somebody reaches the pleasure and privilege of completing benevolent service acts that enhance the lives of those involved. (LeCrom, Pelco, Lassiter, 2016) virtuous purpose the service encounte r is a mutual moral activity it answers a moral call in the whole while beef up the moral beliefs and values of those volunteering. (LeCrom, Pelco, Lassiter, 2016)Personal affirmation the service enables one to rediscover the inherent gifts on has to offer the world that are usually taken for granted. (LeCrom, Pelco, Lassiter, 2016)Stoic endurance a mix between being fully committed to the work and those served, yet remaining somewhat detached. (LeCrom, Pelco, Lassiter, 2016)Boost to success the service work is also self-serving, providing distinguishing experiences that aid career advancement. (LeCrom, Pelco, and Lassiter, 2016)My colleague express that she has felt all of these satisfactions at one time or another while teaching through service learning. She also state that she thinks that these satisfactions are even more satisfying when working with students with special needs. When I asked her if she had to make a choice as to which satisfaction was the most satisfying to her, she said that she would have to pick the Something done, someone reached satisfaction. I then presented her with the following Emotional HazardsWeariness and resignation service work, over time, proves to psychologically draining and more and more disinteresting to providers who begin thinking of doing something else or, at the very least, taking an extended break. (LeCrom, Pelco, Lassiter, 2016)Cynicism a gloomy doubtfulness about the world, people, and their potential that skeptically overshadows any sense experience of hope for the service work results in serious questioning of whether the service work is even impactful. (LeCrom, Pelco, Lassiter, 2016)Arrogance, anger, and bitterness a growing feeling of outrage by the problems the service work is trying to resolve, sometimes enacted on others who are assisting in the work, and becomes embittered with how people in power to nothing eventually the service provider believes they are the only ones who are doing anything. ( LeCrom, Pelco, Lassiter, 2016)Despair a intensify sadness for the impermeable misfortunes of others, making it difficult to notice anything positive from the service work besides the advantages accrued to the service providers. (LeCrom, Pelco, Lassiter, 2016)Burnout/Depression a general sense of utter disappointment, hopelessness, or exhaustion that arise with the arduous duties of service work a depressive condition takes over the spirit and bring with is desolate feelings of going through the motions or terminating the work altogether. (LeCrom, Pelco, Lassiter, 2016)My colleague shared with me that she has experience weariness, cynicism, and burnout during times that she was teaching through service learning. She explained to me that the weariness comes towards the beginning of the school year, the cynicism comes towards the middle of the school year, and the burnout comes towards the end of the school year.Section IV verbal expressionReferencesGoodell, L. S., Cooke, N. K., Ash, S. s. (2016). A Qualitative Assessment of the Impact of a Service-Learning Course on Students Discipline-Specific Self-Efficacy. Journal Of Community interest Higher Education, 8(2), 28-40.Griffith, T., Clark, K. R. (2016). Teaching Techniques. Service Learning. Radiologic Technology, 87(5), 586-588.LeCrom, C. W., Pelco, L., Lassiter, J. W. (2016). efficiency Feel It Too The Emotions of Teaching Through Service-learning. Journal Of Community Engagement Higher Education, 8(2), 41-56.MYERS, A. (2016). Building Bridges to the World Utilizing Service Learning During the sr. Year to Develop Participatory Citizenship. American Secondary Education, 44(3), 4-12.Scott, K. E., Graham, J. j. (2015). Service-Learning. Journal Of Experiential Education, 38(4), 354-372.

An Overview of Health Promotion Programs

An Overview of Health onward motion ProgramsASSIGNMENT What be intumesceness bar programs? What authority do employers play with wellness saloon programs? inquiry wellness pr stock-stilltion programs and the various companies that offers them. Which troupes program do you prefer? Why?In November 2006, I began my journey to draw back free system of weights and become a wellnessy individual. When I was 203 pounds, I knew I involve to lose weight be amaze I was currently vulner able-bodied of succumbing to the many wellness issues interchangeable high blood pressure, heart disease, joint problems and even manage induced asthma. During my quest to lose 63 pounds, I began a health prevention program that over sequence would eliminate or greatly dissipate down my chances of ever contracting a lifestyle cogitate illness. I didnt know it at the time, scarcely many businesses today work to erect the same lifestyle I was seeking to achieve and still sapidity to obtain t oday. If businesses look to provide health prevention programs, it would be a great idea to learn much about what health prevention programs entail.Health prevention programs argon programs that atomic number 18 created to help the public commove off illnesses and overcome diseases. Health prevention programs stave off continuing diseases such(prenominal) as heart disease, various cancers, and lower respiratory infections such as COPD and asthma. Most of these can be prevented by stopping inquisitive behavior such as dope and overeating. The reason why health prevention programs are so effective is beca c wholly, like the name says, these are programs that prevent illnesses as mild as obesity (which is in no way mild) and as severe as heart attacks and strokes (Center for Disease realize and streak (CDC), 2014).Chronic diseases like heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes are obligated for at least seven and as much as 10 deaths a year in the coupled States. Furthermo re, treatment for the preventable yet chronic ailments cost over 75% of the over $2.5 trillion that is spent annually on health flush costs. Finally, yet non exhaustively, obesity is responsible for a great deal of health costs. Beca hire disease risks much related to various social activities like tobacco use, corporal inactivity, poor diet, and alcohol abuse, this often results in unnecessary reasons for poor health and even more unnecessary reasons for chronic disease (Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2014).Businesses are interested in health prevention because of the in bet costs businesses puzzle for poor health in the work place such as absenteeism, physical disability, and reduced employee work output. These cause are further exacerbated by increased health insurance costs. These reductions in production due to preventable health issues contract been known to cost employers in the United States as much as $1,685 per individual employee per year. Anoth er ways to view it is that it costs employers $225.8 billion a year (Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2014).This authority there is a necessity to implement and then expand an evidence- base health prevention that will provide the opportunity to advance the health but also control health care spending in the United States. Health prevention programs catch proven effective. Workplace health programs have influenced social norms establish new health policies, promote healthy lifestyles, and aim health screenings like immunizations, and reduce on-the-job exposure to hazards that can cause injury and diseases. When evidence based health prevention programs are in effect executed, these programs can generate around a $3 profit for either dollar spent (Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2014).Health prevention programs have also benefited programs that focus on aging. Measures taking by the judgeship on Aging is has implemented programs that benefit old er adults manage and improve their health. Older Americans often suffer on a daily floor with chronic diseases, illnesses and injuries such as heart disease, arthritis, and diabetes. Health prevention programs are key in teaching older adults healthy behaviors and lifestyles. One of the outstrip ways health prevention programs benefit older adults is through the use of community based wellness programs. These health prevention programs have been proven track record of increasing self-sufficiency and independence among older adults date decreasing trips to health care providers so that older adults are able to care and manage their health on their own for tenaciouser periods of time (HHS Administration on Aging, 2014).As alluded to earlier, businesses have benefited and have a heightened role in generating health prevention programs. First of all, companies can create three to five health intervention programs that often involve a gang of new programs, policies, and even enviro nmental programs that highlight and celebrate nutrition and physical activity, while discouraging alcohol abuse, drug use and tobacco use in the oeuvre. One example of these programs include creating an inner and outer workplace environment that is completely tobacco-free while also subsidizing counseling to quit smoking and excess drug and alcohol issues. Another programs brings a local sodbusters market into the workplace. The farmers market not single provides the produce but also offers nutritional education and counseling, menu creations based on healthy, whole viandss, non-junk foods in the workplace cafeteria and vending machines, counseling for weight loss and weight maintenance and physical activity /lifestyle counseling, such as walking and running clubs. A successful workplace health prevention program will result in the full champion and commitment of health prevention leadership and employees that are fully secure in all core health prevention programs that are cre ated in a healthy lifestyle culture within the worksite (Health Promotion Programs, 2014). at that place are quite a few businesses that have excellent health prevention programs. First of all, SAS an international software company located in North Carolina, provides for its employees a wellness program that is built around its sport and fittingness center. This recreation and fitness center is open not tho to SAS employees but also the employee family members and those who retire from SAS. Furthermore, SAS provides health checks, smoking cessation programs and incentives for accomplishing fitness goals. Finally though not exhaustively, the recreations and fitness center also provides protective services as well as primary health care services to the SAS employees and their dependents (EHS Today, 2014).Another company that excels in generating health prevention programs is rattling a university. The University of Alaska provides their employees an opportunity to complete a wel lness profile so that they can uncover any hidden health concerns and then direct the employee to the right department in the universitys on-site health and wellness services. The universitys employees can then take part in relevant health screenings, health and fitness events, health and wellness coaching, and online health tracking. Employees who take part in the universitys health prevention programs are often reward for participating in the program (EHS Today, 2014).A third company that excels in providing a health prevention program is the Hamilton Utilities Corporation. This company health prevention program has the goal of providing a healthy workplace for all of their employees. The health prevention program instigates their employees to go beyond popping pills and submitting to surgeries for health maintenance but to look to maintain health from a holistic point of view. This involves measures such as a supportive work environment, workers safety, and employee say-so pro grams. The companys wellness team then evaluates and implements their wellness programs. so the companys management team provides support for the companys wellness efforts through employee training, employee participation incentives, and implementing vending machines that provide healthy food choices in the workplace (EHS Today, 2014).Of all the programs, I am most strike with the health prevention program that is found at SAS. Frist of all, I like how they provide a smoke free environment outside as well as inside. I remember one company I worked at where I needed to drop off an overnight share in a FedEx drop box that was right next to a prime smokers blot. I always had to hold my breath at that spot because that second-hand cigarette smoke was indeed quite intense. Furthermore, I really prise the thoughtfulness of SAS to provide a fitness center that is accessible not only to the employees but also to the employees family and its available to the employees long later they r etire. Finally, though certainly not exhaustively, I appreciate how SAS rewards employees for accomplishing fitness goals really touches my heart. I would love to work at a company that rewards a person for reaching his or her goal weight, completing a 10K and even anniversaries for each year an employees goal weight is maintained. I would be honored to work at such a company.Conclusion by and by completing this assignment, Im even more encouraged to lose the thirty pounds Ive regained. I want to live a long and healthy life and I cant do that with a thirty pound excess weighing down my heart and ambitious my breathing and joints. Furthermore, even with health insurance, managing the hazards of excess weight is expensive. I would quite spend money on tap dance classes and running 10Ks than on prescriptions for managing high blood pressure. Finally, though certainly not exhaustively, I have a six-year-old nephew that I want to watch grow up, graduate from college and rag married. Ive always said I want to dance at his wedding and I cant do that as well if dancing will cause breathing problems due to excess weight. Im so thankful for companies that provide health prevention programs because they encourage me to maintain my own healthy lifestyle.ReferencesCenter for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2014). Comprehensive Workplace Health Programs to Address Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Tobacco use up in the Workplace. Retrieved March 16, 2014, from Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http// Today. (2014). Employers pee-pee Active Role in Promoting Workplace Wellness. Retrieved March 16, 2014, from EHS Today http// Promotion Programs. (2014). Health Promotion Programs. Retrieved March 16, 2014, from Helath Promotion Promotion Programs http// on/HHS Administration on Aging. (2014). Health, Prevention, and Wellness Program. Retrieved March 16, 2014, from HHS Administration on Aging http//

Friday, March 29, 2019

The concept of Work-Life Balance

The concept of hold up- heart differenceIntroductionThe concept of course emotional state proportionateness has al ways existed, it just wasnt until recently that experts put a name to it. Employment has been traditionally thought of the means to which you support your individual(prenominal) liveness, with Work spiritedness brace principles employers toilet now gain rivalrous profit from creating a more symbiotic relationship with a individuals mansion and work. This allows for lower stress in the work straddle and great fun in the home. The consequences of this atomic number 18 increase performance in the work place and great repertoire for marketing to radical employers. As this is difficult to induce in any indus interpret and this is real true with enlisting agencies. The pursuance is breakdown of the Work Life parallelism principles on with a party analysis of the Irish enlisting gamy society CPL.Work Life oddmentThe major concept of Work Life B alance in meshing is that the employer gives the employee the ability to lot their responsibilities in and knocked step to the fore(p) of work while generating ego worth. This great deal be d wiz and hardly(a) by a multitude of waysFlexibilityAlthough hard in many industries the confederacys structure should enable an employee to work flexible measures so that they can execute their out of work obligations. This can include anything from leaving early to recess up their children from school to being allowed to work via the Internet when the employee is infallible to handgrip home problems like construction work. The requirement of this is simple as the ease of work and liveliness is not something that you can attach an actual topic to. Certain weeks your soulfulnessal livelihood labor out require more eon and another(prenominal) weeks your professional life lead consider a greater investment, with flexibility in the work place and home you can batten do wn neither pass on be neglected.AchievementAs this is a counterweight between life and work an employee must have the ability to chase in their profession. The employee needfully to be able to keep up in and out of work to get this. The structure of the souls professional life needs to allow for progression in accordance to performance. Through this the person can truly shape their own destiny generating self-importance worth and in conjunction with other work life fit concepts they will be able achieve in home life as vigorous.EnjoymentThere argon many employees who can be riant in any mail service as long as they cerebration it accordingly. Enjoying life is something that e rattling(prenominal)(prenominal)one can do and is integral to the work life balance. A person must be able to work in a setting that they can not only achieve exclusively too make whoopie their success. Tied in with the concept of flexibility a person needs to understand that in order to do wel l in work you need to be enjoying work and life. A happy person will be able to perform break out through increased energy and drive which helps the plaque maintain their competitive advantage.Conceptually the root word of Work Life Balance seems relatively simple. If you can maintain flexibility, achieve well and enjoy life you can add value to your life (Holden and Renshaw, 2004, pg 91). This system gets complicated as employers try to help everyone who has similar responsibilities out-of-door of work which creates a strain on the whole performance. The balance itself is in that location to support the employees so that they support the firm, symbiotic relationships like this are unendingly fragile from their codependence and true balance is mount impossible to maintain in certain industries. Recruitment is one of those hard industries.AdvantagesThe main advantage occurring from Work Life Balance policies in an organization is the improved performance from your employees. I t has been turn out that an employee who has the flexibility in their agate line to lot their person-to-person lives will bring on the following1. Higher quality work 2. Less missed meter 3. More employer loyalty 4. An overall more enjoyable workplace as all employees are achieving and enjoying 5. More innovative ideas as employees care more or less their job 6. Strong recruitment marketing for future employees which increase the natural endowment poolThis all results in a greater competitive advantage for the firm which will enable them to r distributively(prenominal) their own goals (Holden and Renshaw, 2004).Irish Recruitment IndustryIrelands economy is booming but is withal in close proximity to the powerful pound of the UK. This has resulted in a very cutthroat recruitment fabrication where people vie for coveted positions. The result of this has been a large hindrance for employees ability to manage their Work Life balance. Several forces are the result of this tren d.Company example- CPLBackground InformationCPL was founded in 1989 to capitalize on the strengthening information technology industry in Ireland. The founded, Anne Heraty worked as a self employed recruiter until she managed to gain comely nodes to acquire more and expand. The company went public in 1999 for added investor support to promote their received expansion trends. From there the company has grown to employing over 2,750 temporary cater at any one point and being the largest recruitment company in Ireland.Current actions to promote work life balanceeducational Policy Promoting greater opportunities within the work place, CPL has used a very flexible educational policy to promote a work life balance. within their scheme they are willing to pay for an employees education as long as it is something that will benefit the firm. On top of this any employee currently studying receives five extra days of holiday on top of their regular annual leave to further encourage self improvement. Being an employee with them means that you are entitled to any number of their educational schemes including1. Conflict Management- where they learn about how to deal with problems with other employees, clients or suppliers 2. 5 minute manager- learn general management achievements 3. Business strategy- learn introductory competitive strategy principles 4. Any education- any external education can be funded by CPL and given the extra holiday time.Leave PoliciesCPL strives to watch that large leave requirements are handled as fairly as possible. They are ranked in the top 25 companies in Ireland to work for and one of their main strengths is the benefits they give their employees for certain personal life requirements. This includes paid leave for pregnancy, marriage, family tragedy, illness. Along with this they also give guaranteed job placement after these leaves should the employees increase as added incentive.Problems person-to-person PerformanceRecruiters work under a champion company name but the main bulk of their wages is helpless on personal performance. A recruiter ordinarily is unavoidable to establish unused clients for the firm and they are paid in accordance to the amount of employees they place. Within this the recruiters all have their own team of temporary employees in which they bring out work for from the client field. Being paid in accordance to these principles makes it very difficult for employees to operate within a Work Life Balance as they are undeniable to work endless hours to earn more money as well as constantly recruit stark naked talent to further their goals. Flexible hours in this situation are near impossible to do as CPL expects their recruiters to perform for the client as well as any time taken rancid luffly affects your wages.This is roughly different for the placed temporary employees but they still are required to perform exceptionally well in each job they take to ensure that they will be gi ven another. The jobs they take are normally to cover someone who needed leave for personal responsibilities or to handle increased work load, either one the employers expect the worker to overgorge in the gaps and take little to no time off for themselves.Personal performance archetypes do not just hurt the required works hours for the employee but also takes outside from the job enjoyment. Trying to find new clients can sometimes place the recruiters into direct competition with each other that increases the overall stress in the work place.This leaves room for professional achievement but little for personal enjoyment which is detrimental to the balance.Client oriented hours- Not work load orientatedThe recruiters and temporary workers both are required to adhere to the raft of jobs available instead of a beat work load. CPL employees do not know when the demand for their servicings will increase or decrease and neither does CPL management, what this ends in is you are requ ired to work around your clients needs. Working around the needs of your client disables your ability to take flexible hours for your self as if CPL cannot handle the clients needs when they need it then they will just go to the beside recruiter. Not having a standard amount of work to complete in the course of the day automatically hinders the employees Work Life Balance. Having low ledger of work does not mean that the employee can take time off for personal reasons as that may not be required at the time. For a person to establish work life balance they need to have both flexible.Cutthroat industry standardsThe recruitment industry is super competitive as they all strive for the same competitive advantages. The salute of the temp employees is dictate by the job not by the standard at which the temp agency operates. That means all recruiters are seek to operate on the highest quality to ensure they maintain high the great unwashed performance. Having an entire industry based around this means everyone needs to be fighting for their own positions or they will lose contractors and clients. Recruiters are anticipate to work those extra hours in order to produce results and increase client relationships for future work. CPL is an industry leader in Ireland for these reasons which once again gives laborious opportunities for employees to achieve and enjoy their professional life but difficult for the flexibility requirement in their personal life.Volume orientated performanceA recruiter is paid based on the amount of employees they place in jobs. The spirit of this payment means right away that in order to succeed the recruiter will be required to sacrifice more time. Work Life Balance in this situation cannot exist as for the employee to achieve and enjoy one, they must sacrifice the other.End ResultWork Life Balance in the recruitment industry is near impossible to maintain. Employees are required to work around the requirements of the clients instead of what is set forth by the company. On top of this employees also are paid in accordance to the volume of service they provide with a requirement to continue to produce high quality. This results in a system which requires the employees to achieve only within the company and is forced to constantly be on call for client requirements. This makes it very difficult for employees to establish a solid Work Life Balance as all their professional achievement is based on provide to the job first.RecommendationsRemote WorkingAs recruiters are basically operating(a) as small businesses on their own within CPL, they should have the selection of on the job(p) from home if required. Company calling cards and remote net access will allow the recruiter to stay in touch with clients and employees at all times to handle any problems should they arise. Although this should not be the norm, it will allow for employees to establish a more balance life exterior of work so that they can lower stress and perform better within the job.Client Contacts As the normal case for recruitment agencies is that each recruiter has their own contractor squad and own set of repeat clients it would be very nubive to the Work Life Balance for recruiters to stop working on a personal performance standard and focused more on their ability to perform as a team. By having expose contacts for a client but not necessarily only one contact can enable for some flexibility in the work place along with a more diverse employee pool to satisfy the client needs. This also helps with increasing the enjoyment and achievement within the organization as employees are now working towards a great ethical together instead of being in competition with each other. gull TrainingCPL had it right by offering educational course of studys for their employees. Educating the employees allows for them to not only be happier in the job but also gives them opportunities to stretch out into new fields which can be very f ulfilling. Within this they should try and institute cross genteelness practices to create an internal structure in the organization that can support many stresses. Having employees who can cover for each other will create a sense of unity along with enabling people who have other responsibilities to handle those as well. These concepts are key to the Work Life Balance.Employee ServicesCPL is a large enough organization that they should look into having services which can help support employees personal lives. Several example services to support the employees Work Life Balance are as follows1. Day care center 2. Dog go service 3. Activity days for employees 4. Career counseling 5. Benefit packagesslaying PlanRemote working is something that can be started right away as it only requires minimal IT servicing to set up a remote portal. Calling cards or company mobiles can also be purchased and given out with little work. The cross training program can fall under the current policies that they have for education but will require an analysis of current operations to see what training will be required. Employee services will require a longer implementation period as the needs and plausibility of each service will need to be accessed then the resources will need to be found in order to create the required packages.ConclusionWork Life Balance is hard to be developed in industry which is highly competitive and based on personal performance. An employee cannot establish a balance as there is a teeter totter effect occurring with work performance. For an employee to succeed within a recruitment agency, they need skill but they also need to invest time. Recruiters them selves see a direct comparison to the amount of time they spend in a job and how much they earn while the contractors need to commit large amounts of time to a job where they cannot satisfy any other personal responsibilities as the client is paying for stability. As a company within recruitment CPL is t rying to help establish this balance but their current situation makes it hard for them to be a front runner on these ideals. CPL can institute policies which will help alleviate the strain on an employees balance but it will always be difficult to establish equalizer as per the industry standards.BibliographyHolden, Robert and Renshaw, Ben. Balancing Life and Work Dorling Kindersley, 2004.CPL homepage http// update promenade 2005. Accessed April sixteenth 2005.CIPD- The human resources development website http// updated August 17 2004. Accessed 16th April 2005.

Tata Motors losses

Tata Motors lossesCan Tata Motors get hold of and growing its mart sh ar in India through with(predicate) and through the plunk of panther and gain Roer?IntroductionMy r land upering examines the recent acquisition of Tata Motors of dickens iconic cable simple machinerys- puma and set d hold wanderer from crossroad Motors at a staggering amount of $2.3 billion. Despite being easily kn avouch makes, they atomic list 18 suffering losses. After Tata Motors take over, they were strategizing to show these harvest-festivals in the Indian commercialize which has huge produce prospects. The real ch totallyenge was in these stations attracting clients a style from rivals in the Indian merchandise. Simultaneously Tata Motors has launched Tata Nano to capture the Indian mart for small gondolas. This exit be reinforced by creation light- w eighted aluminium and hybridization gondolas from come to spider.With garter of SWOT, Ansoff intercellular substance and As set take marting my commentary go away examine how successful ordain be the launch of jaguar and grime rover cars in India.SWOT AnalysisSWOT kayoedline is a effectual purpose-making to a faultl that is use to assess the stream and future(a) situation of a intersection, brand, familiarity, proposal or decision. It considers undecomposed about(prenominal)(prenominal) internal and extraneous factors that ar relevant to the going under investigation.1StrengthsThe acquisition of the two orbiculate brands- painter and Land wanderer acts in a crucial way to increase and fall apart the brand reputation and the quality of products for Tata Motors. It provides plenty of fortune to the Indian consumer and the developing Indian carmobile market potful in addition help the launch of brands in the long-term. It cigargontte reap economies of scale through component sourcing and low comprise engineering.WeaknessWith distinguishable product portfolios for both brands it forget be a challenging task ahead to market the actually(prenominal) in the price sensitive Indian market. But this could be overcome through proper(ip) market research. An different concern is the decrease figure of speech out-of-pocket to the continued losses and a de motivated tempt force due to the change in trouble. With right training and incentives and proper change strategies the lodge hind end convert these negatives to potencys.OpportunitiesThis launch is a peachy prospect for the Indian client and target the growing Indian market. motorcar market is developing in India and placed with launch of Nano, Tata Motors bequeath be in a ripe position capture a heavy(a)r sh atomic number 18 of the market. ThreatsIncreasing fuel prices feature with world(prenominal) meltd give got leave be a challenge for the bon ton to stay afloat and over come the losses. In addition the strong aspiration rout out imperil the expected gross gross sales of the compan y. However the in here(predicate)nt financial and managerial strength of the conglomerate should be able to let the company withstand the challenges and move ahead. A danger that cadaver is that with the sore ownership international brand loyalties may change and customers may move towards other models in the market.Ansoff MatrixThe Ansoff Matrix is an analytical tool that helps managers to devise their product and market growth strategies. It consists of four growth strategies namely- Market penetration, Market culture under sensitive and actual and markets AND Product development, diversification under new and subsisting products.2DiversificationIt refers to the high risk growth scheme that involves a stock marketing new products in new markets. P arnt companies do-nothing bene rifle from having a presence in a range of products and markets in different regions of the world.6Market Penetration-Tata could continue with the same outline that it had pick out for the UK f or the rest of world. The estate, coupe and open prevention models of painter and the Freelander and Range scouter sport of Land roamer selling in the alive markets UK can help them to gain profits and increase in sales in other markets due to the reputation of the brands. For the new models that are planned to launch, promoting and advertising can be a good choice for the signs to maintain their position in the market and to attract to a greater extent consumers and build customer loyalty. Tata Indica and other commercial vehicles akin Tata Ace are examples of Tatas market penetration strategy that exist in the existing markets and are still earning them great profits.Product Development-Tata Motors are innovation the smallest car the far-famed Tata Nano in the Indian markets which is a new product by the blind drunk and launched in existing markets of India and other countries where Tata Motors operate. This car can be utile for the firm as they can easily generate prof its through this product as well as their brand name. Also, the firm can compete with other businesses in the same market with the help of these products. Tata Starbus and Tata Xover are other new products that take over been launched by Tata Motors in India and other existing markets of Tata Motors.Diversification-The new products planned by Tata Motors through the panther and Land Rover brands can be categorized in diversification. The company plans of manufacturing hybrid, electric car and bio-fuels found and environmental friendly cars with the help of latest technology through both of these brands which can be useful in elevateing the brand foresee of the firm. Also, at that place may be an increase in the profits of the firm as the hybrid cars are utter to be the future of automobiles in locate to save the earth from pollution. These new products launched in the new markets of India and others can be termed as diversified strategy of the firm. Tata Nano can alike be include in this strategy as it is also a new product and is planned to be launched into new markets of African and Asian countries. Asset led marketingAsset led marketing is a strategy that is adopted by the business for the sales of their products or go. Here, the firm uses its intangible assets for introducing a new product in the market. Tata Motors is a well-established and well- cognize firm and a part of the parent company Tata and Sons. Thus, in order to launch its products or services in the market and bread off with immediate sales and profits, Tatas can use this which may even be applicable for launching the two automobile brands. Tata Motors have been in the news for outgoing several(prenominal) months due to the launch of the worlds cheapest car in India- Tata Nano manufactured by their own company. Simultaneously launching two brands can help Tatas in gaining a fate of customer attention and thus a heavy(a)r customer base. The well established and elegant brands w ith the giant prestige of Tata Motors can help the firms in garnering huge amounts of profits and gaining control over their competitors.Evaluation The biggest pass judgment of this acquisition is that the firm might see an increase in sales of the cars due to both firms worldwide prodigality brand reputation and also due to the services and quality provided by the cars.But at the same time, the number of competitors in the booming automobile market of India has increased and conclusion their way out to satisfy the customers with different marketing strategies can be actually costly for the firm.Tata Motors can implement various strategies such as advertising and also, various schemes can be used which guarantee consumer contentment and can also prove to be a part of customer attraction. These strategies can prove to be useful in boosting the brand image and the sales of the company as well.Short- term problems faced by the firm may be the recovering of the costs that has bee n put into the acquisition and the launch of puma and Land Rover cars. The high manufacturing costs of Tata Motors, catamount and Land Rover might prove to be a nonher reason for the losses in the accounts of the Tata Motors. The long-term problems can be an increase in competition as the Indian automobile market is developing at a rapid rate. If the company suffers losses, then there might be the take up for job redundancies, thus leading to give wayer de-motivation.ConclusionTo conclude, the acquisition of Jaguar and Land Rover brands may be risky due to the global slowdown but Tata Motors with its brand name and established presence in India can succeed in the long run.Tata collection, a huge multinational giant worldwide can capitalize through cross-subsidization. I guess that by promoting the products and launching it along with Tata Nano leave be useful as each can be a backup for the other in the future. The workforce can be motivated through good k directlyledge ex perience as they may have access to the technology used in manufacturing these premium cars but at the same time, if the products fail to constrain a mark on customers, the workers may tint insecure as job redundancies may be adopted by Tata Motors to struggle with their own financial portfolio.Bibliography-1. http// http// http// http// http// http// http// http// http// http// /tatamotors/profit-loss/TM0311. http// http// http// Jaguar and Land Rover have a respected brand image in the global markets for their luxurious cars. A good move for Tata Motors to gain the highlife market. A global visibility for the owner of the company as a sprawling conglomerate. Benefits from component sourcing, design services and low cost engineering. A good scaming experience for the workers.Weaknesses- Both brands have a vast and a different product portfolio. Unavailability of premium auto parts at the Indian auto parts suppliers and thus, the need to import. minor corporate image of the brands due to massive losses in the past few forms. De-motivation of workers due to redundancies and job cutsOpportunities- Opportunity for the Indian customers to have neighboring access for driving premium cars. India is a developing automobile market and thus, a useful step for the long term. Simultaneous launch of the Tata Nano and other models can generate high profits and develop their control on both the upper and the lower and middle class market. Range of products with different prices helps them to diversify. Reinforcement of globalization.Threats- Negative impact on the car sales of the brands due to economic meltdown and global recession. Lead to value-destruction due to lack of synergies and high-cost operations. bulwark of establishing a stronger market base and change magnitude sales due to the number of rivals such as Audi, Mercedes, Porsche, BMW, Lamborghini. Increase in fuel prices. Shifting brand loyalty due to change in ownershipAnsoff Matrix-Existing productNew productExisting marketMarket penetrationThis strategy mainly applies for those businesses that focus on selling existing products in the existing markets. It is a low- risk strategy and helps to increase the market share of its current products.7Product developmentThis strategy involves businesses aiming to sell new products in existing markets. This strategy is also a reason for acquiring a nonher company as the costs of starting another company can be saved and different types of customers can be catered. This strategy is also useful for businesses using brand expansion strategies.8New marketMarket DevelopmentThis method serves for those businesses that apply the strategy of selling existing products into newer markets.9 Such techniques are used by businesses that plan to expand their business and attain high customer base.DiversificationIt refers to the high risk growth strategy that involves a business marketing new products in new markets. Parent companies can benefit from having a presence in a range of products and markets in different regions of the world.10MUMBAI (Reuters) Tata Motors (TAMO.BO), Indias monstrousst vehicles maker, on Sunday announced the launch in India of Jaguar and Land Rover vehicles, the marquee brands it bought from crossbreeding Motors (F.N) stretch forth year.Saying it was a momentous occasion for the company, chairman rattan Tata said, This is in keeping with our commit to extend the penetration of the brands in India.The automobile firm, which controls about 60 part of the worlds fifth-biggest truck and bus market, forget soon also be rolled out the Nano, billed as the worlds cheapest car.Jaguar is launching the XF amd XK range of luxury coupes and convertibles in India starting at a price tag of 6.3 cardinal rupees (79,000 pounds) and going up to 9 one thousand thousand rupees.Land Rover will initially be launching three vehicles including the Range Rover magnetic declination and Land Rover Disco precise 3, with prices also starting at 6.3 one thousand million rupees but going beyond 9 million.The luxury car market in India is very small, but there is a huge opportunity there. It is growing fast and we expect i t to grow fast over the next 5 to 10 years, said David Smith, chief executive of Jaguar Land Rover.India is an important part of our plans for the future, said Mike Driscoll, managing director of Jaguar.The luxury car division in India is less than 1 percent of the total car market there.ContinuedOn Friday Tata Motors posted its primary loss in eight years at $520 million (315 million pounds) for the year to March 2009, with its Jaguar Land Rover unit reporting a loss of 306 million pounds in the 10 months of the fiscal year to March 2009, as a brutal global recession crippled car sales.On the issue of loan guarantees for JLR, Tata said, we are in discussions with the U.K. government on the loan guarantees and hopefully we will find a solution for it and our funding plan for JLR will progress.The company is seeking guarantees for the 340 million pounds loan sanctioned by the European Investment Bank and other loans from U.K.-based commercial banks. It is seeking these funds to d evelop new and more fuel efficient cars for improving its competitive position.Sustaining the down roll is important for us and finding a solution (for the loan guarantees) is super important to us, Tata said.He also said that if there was a large financial package from the U.K. government for Jaguar and Land Rover then, there should be commensurate level of representation from them, which had to be negotiated and worked out.An ill-fated, two decade-old strategy is about to end. When Ford hands over the keys to Jaguar and Land Rover (J-LR), it will end its troubled journey with the high-performance premium car brands, which have failed to pull in expected profits despite large investments.Tata Motors is expected to finalise a deal for the two companies for just over $2 billion. However, recent reports indicate that the price might be higher than previously thought. Tata Motors is said to be looking for financing worth $3 billion to fund the deal. The Financial Times reports that Tata Motorss advisors on the J-LR deal, JP Morgan and Citi conference, have accredited instructions to arrange for funding from banks.What worries investors is that Tata Motors may be stretching itself. This is a critical year for the company. In January, Tata Motors introduced its ultra-cheap car Nano to heavy national and global interest. It simultaneously launched a new platform for the Indica, its best selling rider car. Later this year, it will also launch the World Truck, a compute that has been under development with southward Korean subsidiary, Tata Daewoo.Investors have not taken this deal positively as it will put a spate of pressure on Tata Motors highly leveraged balance sheet, says Aniket Mhatre, an analyst with financial services firm, Prabhudas Lilladher. Also, the Nano wont be remunerative for at least the first two-three years. The combined effect is expected to put pressure on Tata Motors margins and profitability.In January, dead after Tata Motors was made the preferred bidder for J-LR, credit rating firm Crisil downgraded the companys long-term debt ratings to a negative watch. It said that the deal would be challenging for Tata Motors as a significant portion of combined revenues would come from two new acquired companies where Tata Motors had yet to build and demonstrate capabilities. The companys stock has dropped 7.9 per cent to Rs 702.65 per share on the year to date.Future StrategyWhat happens next depends on how well Tata Motors can handle the acquisition and service the considerable debt it will assume.The group is known to retain the services of the current focusing team up after pickings over companies. This is exactly what happened when Tata acquired Spanish bus makers Hispano Carrocera and South Korean truck makers Daewoo Commercial Vehicles. Tata executives have likely already approached Jaguars top management team to secure their services beyond the acquisition.The Tata Groups reasoning is that it avoids the hassle of new managers having to learn the ropes. Employee morale also stays high as workers stick with bosses they trust. Still, whatsoever Tata Motors executives will definitely be sent to the UK to mix in the finance and business operations of the two companies.Tata has also promised it will not tamper with Jaguar and Land Rovers business plans, made by Ford up to 2011-12. This delegacy that no employee will be fired and no plant unopen down, even if these are a financial burden.Scheduled roll-outs for Jaguar and Land Rover are also likely to carry on. Ford has plans of launching a number of new models for the J-LR combine, says Mhatre. These are expected to do very well in their respective markets. It could provide the much needed boost to Jaguars profitability in particular.Ford has also secured components from suppliers over the medium term. Tata Motors will enjoy this benefit as it will buy it time to integrate J-LR operations into its own extensive community of lower-cost suppl iers, which include around 20 auto design studios, steel units and various component makers.Chairman Ratan Tata also assures that Jaguar and Land Rover will not be re-badged as Tata vehicles. Jaguar dealers were disappointed when they realised that the once-legendary British brands would now be owned out of India. For the European market, Tata Motors has a truck-manufacturer image, says Mhatre. Consumers may consider chemise their brand loyalty to competitors in such a scenario.That is why Tatas decision to not tamper with Jaguar and Land Rovers character will be important. It is also consistent with moves from past acquisitions. Trucks sold in Daewoos native South Korea do not bear the Tata badge. That emblem only appears on vehicles where the Tata brand is more well-known than Daewoo, such as markets like South Asia or Africa.BRAND POWER Jaguar and Land Rover will not be re-badged as Tata vehiclesWhat Tata GainsThe most obvious benefit for Tata Motors is the technology it will no w have access to. Both Jaguar and Land Rover use advanced technology and design and production techniques to churn out their vehicles. These include the use of lighter materials such as aluminium as well as considerably more advanced engine and transmittal technologies. Land Rovers SUV technology in particular could be useful for the Tatas current products in the segment, says Yezdi Nagporewalla, interior(a) Industry Director (industrial markets) at KPMG.Then theres green tech. At the ongoing Geneva Motor Show, Tata Group Chairman Ratan Tata said that he was interested in producing green cars. We are very keen and are looking at working on vehicles that run on biofuels, electric vehicles and hybrid fuels, he told journalists. Land Rover already has one hybrid concept the LRX and says it would invest 700 million in the development of sustainable technology over the next five-spot years.Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the two brands will give Tata Motors a foothold in the luxury space. This means that the company will have a readymade offering in every car segment from ultra-cheap (the Nano) to utilitarian (the Indica) to commercial vehicles (Ace, World Truck) to SUVs (Sumo, Safari and Land Rovers) and, finally, to premium, high-performance cars (Jaguar).The fact that it can literally buy premium brands off the shelf means that it wont have to invest its own time and money to catch up with high-end technology. This is exactly what has put car makers such as Honda or Toyota at a disadvantage in the premium segment in markets such as the US.For the moment, it is unclear whether Tatas gamble will work. $2 billion is a lot of money and, if the analysts are right, Tata Motors may not be in the best position to accept it all back. Still, the Tata group is arguably one of the most professionally managed corporate houses in the country, if anyone can pull it off, they can.Bibliography- http// 3. Tatas to launch Jaguar, Land Rover on June 28 suffer updated on June 18, 20091023 ISTIndias Images tryst with luxury brands takes a new turn on June 28,when Tata Motors Get Quote unfurls its marquee brands, the Jaguar and Land Rover Images , in its home market.The cars will be launched just weeks before Indias first global brand, the ultra-cheap Nano Images , hits the road in July.Tata Motors acquired the luxury vehicles from Ford Images Motor Co for $2.3 billion in March last year. This is the first time globally that Jaguar and Land Rover will debut together.After Mumbai Images , the import cars will drive to Ludhiana and Bengaluru Images .The Jaguar will roll out five models including the XJ, XX, and XF. Two models of the Land Rover will available. Tata Motors declined to reveal the first year sales targets for its new offerings. But a senior Tata manager said they will be number a few hundreds.In the coupled Kingdom, the Jaguar largely sells four models Estate, sal oon, open-top and coupe. The hot selling Land Rover brands overseas are the Range Rover Images , Defender, Discovery and Freelander.JLR will be the first luxury cars from the $83 billion Tata conglomerate although they had a joystick venture with Mercedes Images nearly a decade ago. While the Jaguar gives Tata Motors a toehold in Indias premium car segment, the Land Rover completes its SUV range which includes the Sumo.The JLR launch comes at a time when Indias luxury car market has belied the downturn. international brands like the Rolls Royce, BMW Images , Audi, Porsche, Lamborghini, Maybach and the Bentley have made India their coveted destination in the last couple of years.Last year, Mercedes announced that it will invest Rs 250 crore (Rs 2.5 billion) to set up its first fully-owned production facility in India. Its first plant in Pune was leased from Tata Motors.Even as compact cars clog Indian roads and drive over two-thirds of the 1.5 million auto market, the high mar gin luxury cars are a status symbol amongst Indias rich. Ludhiana, for instance, is the Mecca of luxury cars, auto makers say. India now has its very own luxury brands.Tatas Takeover of Jaguar and Land Rover Bumpy Road or Smooth Ride?Published April 03, 2008 in India emailprotectedWill the acquisition of Land Rover and Jaguar be a smooth ride for Tata Motors? That is the question that many observers have been asking since the Tata Group and Ford announced their $2.3 billion deal at the end of March. The coup has been greeted with jubilation, especially in India, because of the prestige of these marquee brands. On the other hand, skeptics have also been wondering how this acquisition fits in with the Tata Groups overall strategy. What can the Tatas do other than than Ford to ensure that the acquisition pays off? What major challenges will Tata Motors face in integration and marketing? To help make palpate of these issues, India emailprotected spoke with john Paul MacDuffie, Wharton management professor and co-director of theInternational Motor Vehicle Program, andHarbir Singh, Wharton management professor and co-director of theMack Center for Technology Innovation.An edited transcript of the discussion followsemailprotectedLets start with the question that is on everyones mind. Does this deal make economic reason?MacDuffie Its a very fascinating deal. Its clearly not a deal that is stressful to build economies of scale in just one business and just reach into new markets. Its rather a differently motivated deal. For Tata its not the first time that theyve reached for a brand with some prestige value as part of expanding their global visibility. So I say viewed as an acquisition that they intend to learn a great deal from, it could very well make sense.The exposure that the Tatas will have to the high end of the auto business, which they know very well at the domestic end, and to the managing of this very prestigious brand I deem could offer a lot of learn ing opportunities.emailprotectedHarbir, just to follow up on the same issue, the Tatas have the Indica, and they also recently launched the Tata Nano, the famous one lakh rupee car, or the $2,500 car. Do brands like the Jaguar and Land Rover really fit in with that overall portfolio? Whats your sense of the fit?Singh My sense is that the Tatas are exhausting to expand their portfolio in general and they are trying to offer various brands. I dont think its a question of the customer viewing Nano, and Jaguar and Land Rover as all offerings of the same company. Its much more a question of like Louis Moet Hennessy having a set of brands and really doing the best you can for Land Rover and the best you can for Jaguar.In terms of the economic sense of the transaction, I think another way of looking at it is Whats the replacement value of those brands, right? And clearly whatever price they pay is much lower than the replacement value. So the real challenge here for them is to make sure t hat they can enhance Jaguar in its own terms and enhance Land Rover in its own terms.emailprotectedJohn Paul, do you tick?MacDuffie Yes. Ford of course sold the companies because the company is in deep financial distress and really needed cash now. at that place can be a dispute, I guess, about whether the price is too high or too low, but the Tatas certainly paid substantially less than Ford did for those brands. And by all counts Land Rover is profitable and Jaguar has made a strong comeback based on building capabilities, improving quality, they have some interesting new products in the pipelines, so I do agree.emailprotectedDid the Tatas did get a bargain, or did they overpay because this was a higher price than the market expected?MacDuffie Its always very tough to know exactly and theres always this kind of speculation at the time. I think that Ford was certainly counting on increasing the volumes of these brands probably particularly Jaguar to a much higher level. And so at a certain point their efforts to greatly expand the volume, I think, probably hurt them somewhat. They were introducing lower priced Jaguars that a lot of people didnt feel represent that brand very well. They were trying to leverage their own Ford design parts from other models. I actually think managing it as a prestige brand from the base that Ford established should work well for the Tatas.That appears to be their pattern with their acquisitions that they by and large allow the management to keep doing what it is doing and, as I said, look for opportunities to learn from these foreign acquisitions.emailprotected most critics have been saying that for the Tatas this was a deal motivated more by the desire to acquire marquee or iconic brands, almost like former colonials acquiring the trappings of the former empire. Does that criticism make sense?MacDuffie Who knows about that motivation? Theres certainly a kind of interest, I think, in the whole deal that comes partly from s uch associations. One of the other Tata deals thats gotten some attention is the acquisition of Tetley Tea, another British brand, and also of British Steel, the remains of British Steel. And so clearly investing in Britain has worked well for Indian companies.There were competing buyers, mostly private equity sometimes in partnership with other auto companies. And both the unions and the suppliers of Jaguar and Land Rover very much prefer Tata. I suspect not because theyre an Indian company but because of their track record in the way theyve managed acquisitions. They by and large have not done wide-scale layoffs, they have not done haemorrhoid of consolidation theyve focused on leveraging the strengths and the capabilities they have acquired.Singh I agree with everything John Paul is saying. My comment is that its important for the Tatas not to get distrait by the nationalism and those kinds of things, which are all inevitable and natural. And I think its good, the pride is wel l-placed. You know the pride in Tatas by Indian investors and others is well placed. But fundamentally, this transaction has to perform because its a large transaction. I think there is a very good kick downstairs of performing. But I think it important for them to not get wrapped in the overlay of national pride and British colonialism and all those things.emailprotectedFord really had a tough time during the many years that it owned these brands. What could the Tatas do differently to make sure that the acquisitions pay off?Singh Its correct that Ford struggled quite a bit with these transactions. One of the issues that John Paul mentioned earlier was that Ford is in financial trouble. So if you were to think about Tatas approach to all of this, they could get a good price because its a distress sale.I mentioned market replacement value and there is a good chance that the $2.3 billion is well below replacement value because Ford bought Jaguar for a similar reason. They wanted th at luxury nameplate. And Land Rover also is a high-end nameplate. But we can also ask that based on these multiple bidders present, that what we will get is kind of almost an auction-like value, right? eject that it will, given that the bidders are all well-informed and they have had access to the books this is a private transaction, its not a pub