Wednesday, November 27, 2019

English Literature Essay Example

English Literature Essay By P Baburaj Senior Lecturer Dept. of English Sherubtse College, Bhutan MAC FLECKNOE John Dryden In Restoration period, in 1660 was a nation divided against itself. The plague of 1665- 70,000 people died in London alone. In September 1666- The Great fire of London. 13, 000 houses destroyed. As mentioned England was in bad condition. The literature of the period was influenced by the writings of the classical poets such as Virgil, Horace, and Ovid. They tend to return Classical Period. The restoration Period was marked by an advance in colonization and overseas trade, by Dutch wars, by the great plague and the great fire of London, by the Whig and Tory parties and by the Popish plot. Mock? heroic, written in an ironically grand style that is comically incongruous with the ‘low’ or trivial subject treated. This adjective is commonly applied to mock epics, but serves also for works or parts of works using the same comic method in various forms other than that of the full? cale mock? epic poem. Heroic couplet is a traditional form for English poetry, commonly used for epic and narrative poetry. It refers to poems constructed from sequence of rhyming pairs of iambic pentameter lines. The rhyme is always masculine used in the heroic couplet first pioneered by Geoffrey Chaucer in the Legend Of Good Women and The Canterbury Tales. Chaucer is also widely credited with first extensive use of iambic pentameter. The mock heroic style was popular in the Post-Resto ration. We will write a custom essay sample on English Literature specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on English Literature specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on English Literature specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer MacFlecknoe traces its hero’s rise to stupidity in verse deliberately mimicking the style of and alluding to the Aeneid and other epics. Like the Odyssey, it starts in a kind of Olympus, only its the realm of Nonsense, until recently ruled by Flecknoe. The dying king of dullness searches for a successor and, by virtue of his vices (as it were) MacFlecknoe (Shadwell) gets the nod. The rest of the poem develops by a pattern of mock praise of poetic vices wherein success is failure and the slightest deviation from the stultifying norm is a clear sign that somebodys got poetic talent. MacFlecknoe is the mocking Scottish form for son-of-Flecknoe, and the character stands for Thomas Shadwell, whose pretention to be taken for the inheritor of Ben Jonsons poetic tradition Dryden skewers by making him the son of Richard Flecknoe, a poet even Shadwell would see was d ull. Other characters represent contemporary or recent poets (Heywood, Decker, Shirley, Fletcher), or they are allegorica l, part of the epic machinery of the gods by which Dryden mocks Shadwell, making him inherit the throne of Nonesense. John Drydens â€Å"Mac Flecknoe† is a poem in the mock-heroic tradition. Written in about 1678, â€Å"Mac Flecknoe is the outcome of a series of disagreements between Thomas Shadwell and Dryden. Their quarrel blossomed from the following disagreements: 1) their different estimates of the genius of Ben Jonson, 2) the preference of Dryden for comedy of wit and repartee and of Shadwell, the chief disciple of Jonson, for humors comedy, 3) a sharp disagreement over the true purpose of comedy, 4) contention over the value of rhymed plays, and 5) plagiarism. Flecknoe comprehends that it is time for his departure as he has for long reigned over the realms of dullness beginning his tenure like Augustus at an early age. The first two lines are an ostentatious platitude on the transience of Life; how Fate eventually wins over the former. The only common aspect between Flecknoe and Augustus was that both of them began to rule young; the insignificance of Flecknoe is contrasted against the huge stature of Augustus, in keeping with the mock -heroic tradition. Flecknoe was indubitably the undisputed King of Dullness in the realms of prose and verse. He has produced a large number of dunces and now seriously contemplates over a successor. Flecknoe pitches on Shadwell owing to a persistent dullness right from his literary infancy. There is a Biblical allusion as to how God created man in his own image. Again following the mock-heroic tradition the grandeur of God is contrasted against the conformed stupidity of Shadwell The other dunces have occasionally showed flashes of genius while Shadwell has consistently exemplified his expertise in the field of dullness. While others may create something intelligible once in a while, Shadwell never deviates from his record-his graph has been steady and consistent for dullness. Subsequently, the poet goes on to gibe at the corpulence of Thomas Shadwell with not too much of sarcasm. Dryden mocks at Shadwell’s idiocy. The man blocks the whole of vision with his huge structure. The imposing structure comes across as a huge oak that is monotonous and insensate. Just as the oak blocks the rays of the sun, Shadwell permits no enlightment of minds. As per Dryden, Shirley and Heywood were insignificant and loquacious. They utilized words extensively without communicating any real sense. Nevertheless, Shadwell overshadowed them in their talent for verbosity. He thereby has earned himself the much coveted title of â€Å"the prophet of Tautology†. Flecknoe is ecstatic at the fact though he is greater in absurdity than Shirley and Heywood, Shadwell has outdone them all. Verging on blasphemy, Mac Flecknoe likens himself to St. John the Baptist who arrived before Jesus to pave the way for the Saviour. Likewise, the advent of Flecknoe is merely a prelude to the heralding of the ultimate epitome of Dullness, Shadwell. Dryden also satirizes Shadwell’s poetic and musical pretensions. A cacophony (dissonance) is superior to Shadwell’s noise,says the speaker. Shadwell penned the play called Epsom Wells, but the line Such a fellow as he deserves to be tossed in a blanket occurs in Shadwells Virtuoso. Arion was the renowned magician of Cornith. Once as he returned from a musical extravaganza, sailors robbed him of his belongings and cast him into the sea. The melodious music that he played on his lute allured the dolphins and they steered him back to safety. Shadwell could only reproduce squeaks and roars. The thick-skinned people came to laud the so-called musician. The scum(sedimentary waste) came to cheer him just as tiny fishes rushed in for fragments of food thrown to them. With affected encomium, Dryden contests that Shadwell had a better timing than the St. Andre, the French master. His troop participated in Shadwell’s’ opera,†The Psyche†. Dryden asserts that the troop’s performance was out of rhythm owing to the unnecessary feet in Shadwell’s lines. Shadwell’s conducting of the choir was totally out of tune. Dryden showers praises on Shadwell for the extra -feet included in his poem. In an ironic tone, Dryden claims that â€Å"The Psyche† was such a masterpiece in tautology that Singleton, the actor grew green with envy. He always enacted the role of Villerus in the lute and the sword scenes of Davenant’s play†The Siege of Rhodes†. He was now convinced that the play was worthless in comparison to Shadwell’s psyche. It was futile to be an actor any longer. Thus he disparages in the guise of praise (and employs a satiric tone in the process). Dryden then goes on to describe Mac Flecknoe’s coronation. As he mentions the ‘nursery’, he refe rs to a theatre in Golden Home in 1664 to train children for the stage. Good plays were never performed here. It was ludicrous to find little boys and girls playing out the parts of kings and queens. The nursery comes across as a tribute to wretched playwrights. The language employed is also deplorable. It verges merely on puns and verbosity. As the whole of London prepared themselves to welcome the coronation of Shadwell Instead of the red carpet, worthless works were strewn on the pathway in order to honour him. Dryden parodies the scene in Book V of the Aeneid where Aeneas declared to his followers that in the event of his death his son Ascanius would succeed him . Dryden goes on to describe Shadwell that clouds of dark ignorance formed a halo around his head. The brows were thick with fogs of idiocy. Shadwell pledges that he will venture industriously to promote and support insipidness. Like Hannibal vowed to remain an enemy of Rome, he declared to be the arch rival of good sense. Just as Homilcar forced h is son to take the oath, Flecknoe asks his son to swear. Kings often hold a ball and scepter as the emblem of sovereignity. Here, Shadwell is provided with a mug of ale, and a copy of Flecknoe’s deplorable play â€Å"Love’s Kingdom†. Dryden mocks at Shadwell’s alcoholic tendencies ,and his sexual expoilts. Flecknoe, the celibate and his illegitimate son can only verge on degrading comments and abortive issues like the ale. In his other hand, instead of the scepter, he is equipped with â€Å"love’s kingdom† that connotes the female genitalia. The birth of psyche reinforces this aspect. As Shadwell’s artistic endeavors are termed as abortive’, he is deemed to have all the features of a woman. It functions as a response to Shadwell’s taunt: â€Å"An old gelt mastiff has more mirth than thou. † Flecknoe adorns Shadwell with a sheath of poppies hinting at Shadwell’s addictive tendencies to opium. It also hints at the sleep-inducing merit of his monotonous works. Going back to his mock-heroic traditions, he asserts that Rome was named by Remus and Romulus. As a dispute ensued between them, they appealed to the Omens. As Romulus saw twelve vultures, where Remus only six, Romulus attained the distinction of naming the city. The speaker here brings twelve owls, the birds of Zeus ,a symbol of ill-omen instead of vultures. The next lines reveal Flecknoe blessing his son. Let success allow others to produce better works. Shadwell will follow Flecknoe and produce more and more literary abortions. They are feminine in character, and are sterile . Only that they have feminine instinctive feelings. As potent ale issues forth urine, Virtuoso and Psyche are revealed to be tedious volumes of excrete. Intelligent playwrights often introduce fools in their plays to exemplify the author’s genius. Nevertheless, Shadwell’s characters illustrate the author’s stupidity. They are the best evidences of Shadwell’s stupidity. The only distinguishing factor between him and them are their names. Shadwell was often charged with plagiarism. Particularly, he borrowed from the plays of Sedley. This adulterates his unalloyed stupidity that Flecknoe regards superior to all. Shadwell,therefore, must not rely on others, but solely depend on his spontaneous idiocy that sets him apart. Shadwell and Ben Jonson had nothing in common but rotundity. Jonson never rose to absurd heights. Shadwell should not imitate Ben Jonson as his works were artistically sound. Flecknoe affirms that Shadwell is truly his own child. It appears as though one dunce advocates another. Nevertheless, the stolen passages stand out conspicuously bringing out the considerable differences between both the writings. Shadwell should be proud for his dry, verbose, sleep-inducing verses. While his tragedies provoked laughter, his comedies were soporific. He always produces the opposite effect rather than the intended one. However, in spite of himself, though the speaker endeavours to be satirical in approach, it turns out to be harmless and shallow. Shadwell was the superior writer of comedies as compared to Dryden in reality. If Shadwell really wanted to attain fame he should contest in the field of low -level and stupid idioms. Flecknoe advises Shadwell not to pen plays, but engage in shallow humour, pseudo-wit and dull expressions. The poet uses another mock-heroic feature. In the Bible (II Kings, ch:2;11-17) Elijah leaves his mantle to Elisha as he ascends towards his heaven. Thereby Elisha was endowed with the gift of prophesy. Similarly, Flecknoe conferred his mantle of dullness upon Shadwell as he descended to hell. The term â€Å"prophet’s part† probably means â€Å"father’s part†. Nevertheless, the poem ends with an offensiv e ’fart’ as the concluding note. Satiric Perspective in John Dryden’s Mac Flecknoe In the poem Mac Flecknoe, John Dryden’s contempt for his literary contemporaries practically drips from every word. However, the effect of this arouses neither anger nor sympathy in the reader, but laughter. How can such serious intentions produce such a seemingly inappropriate response? The answer is through satire. Satire employs wit and humor as a device of ridicule by transforming the meanings of words. Specifically, a sudden imbalance in diction triggers a sense of confusion as the reader struggles to place familiar words within an unusual context. What was once respectable becomes disreputable; what was once praised becomes condemned. As the new meanings of the words become clear, the realization of the mockery produces laughter. However, satire is much more than a means of slandering under the guise of humor. Indeed, few would appreciate the humor in defamation executed for its own sake. Rather, satire is amusing because the new meanings of words expose a formerly unnoticed, insightful truth about the old. For example, Mac Flecknoe undeniably ridicules, in particular, the literary ability and accomplishments of the restoration playwright, Thomas Shadwell. However, it also ridicules the underlying literary values that qualify Shadwell’s ability as a source of praise. Specifically, by intermingling the registers of royalty and religion with the low diction of stupidity and tautology, John Dryden’s satiric perspective both makes us laugh and reveals the absurdity of the literary values of his society. The imbalance in diction between registers of royalty and stupidity and its multiple satiric effects can be shown through an analysis of Dryden’s introduction of Shadwell through his father Flecknoe, and his description of Shadwell’s future kingdom. The poem begins by describing the succession of a monarchy in a tone akin to an epic masterpiece. However, instead of the praise and admiration we would expect of an Odysseus-like hero, the aged prince Flecknoe proclaims that his successor should only rule, who most resembles me: / Sh- alone my perfect image bears, / Mature in dullness from his tender years. Sh- alone, of all my sons, is he, / Who stands confirmed in full stupidity (lines 14 – 18). In these lines the combination of the words perfect and mature with dullness and stupidity effectively transforms the values of the former, and this is what creates the humorous effect. The reader expects the hero who succeeds to a crown to be endowed with qualities of perf ection and maturity, especially in the context of an epic poem. However, within the context of this poem, dullness and stupidity take on the register of royalty: they are now the admirable traits of a King. The sudden imbalance in diction of these words surprises the reader, and, aware of their original meanings, the absurd new definitions produce laughter. Although the example above showed how the imbalance of diction associated with the register of royalty causes a humorous effect, Dryden’s satire of royalty throughout the poem also communicates a broader commentary on the literary values of his society. This is especially shown in the description of Shadwell’s future Kingdom. According to Dryden, prostitution and bad writing characterize Shadwell’s realm. Here, amidst this monument of vanished minds, Flecknoe ambitiously designed his Sh-’s throne. / For ancient Dekker prophesied long since, / That in this pile should reign a mighty prince (lines 82, 86 – 88). The satiric perspective which transformed the values of the words perfection and dullness above can also be applied to the words ambitiously, mighty, and pile in this description. Indeed, it seems absurd for a mighty prince to aspire to rule a kingdom of brothels, and the image of such a situation is humorous. However, the deeper satiric meaning becomes clear once it is recognized that Shadwell’s realm is, in reality, a section of London known as Grub Street. In this enclosed section of London, freelance writers make a living selling everything from epitaphs to parliamentary speeches. Through the mockery of Shadwell’s kingdom as this part of London, Dryden ridicules the literary values of a society that make a place such as Grub Street possible. The effect of this on the reader is to rethink the validity of those values, as seen in the light of the satiric humor. The register of royalty is not the only theme exploited by Dryden throughout Mac Flecknoe for the sake of humor and the reformation of the values of his contemporary literary audiences. Indeed, just as literary audiences of the restoration had the necessary knowledge of Grub Street that is needed to appreciate the ridicule of it, they would have also found the religious references equally witty. Perhaps the best example of the satiric reversal of values concerning the religious register appears in the description of Shadwell’s coronation ceremony: From dusty shops neglected authors come, / Martyrs of pies, and relics of the bum (lines 100-1). Although the incongruency between the words martyrs and pies and between the words relics and bum is obvious, the transformation of values in this is case is not to be taken literally. Rather, the word martyr refers to the unsold books that were used to wrap pies and the word relics refers to those same unsold books that were used as toilet paper. Given this understanding, the line, Martyrs of pies, relics of the bum, is a combination of the highest register, the divine, and the lowest register, human refuse. Thus, in the context of the satire, the humor is derived from the imagery of the unsold books and neglected authors, which paved the way for Prince Shadwell’s approach to the throne and were reduced to the contemptible state of pie wrappings and toilet paper. Although the idea of human waste as a red carpet for a King seems preposterous, it becomes more so when considering the King to be a Messiah. In addition to satirizing the societal values that produced Grub Street, Dryden denounces the values of literary audiences by equating them with followers of the prophet of tautology. Through the voice of Flecknoe, Dryden compares two playwrights of the early seventeenth century, Thomas Heywood and James Shirley, to the figures of Moses and Isaac in that they have prepared the way for the coming of Shadwell: Heywood and Shirley were but types of thee, / Thou last great prophet of tautology (29 – 30). In this line Dryden elevates the status of Shadwell by an increase in the diction of a prince to that of a prophet. However, just as in the context of the satire Shadwell is succeeding to the throne of dullness, so does he take command of the backwards, circular philosophy of tautology as a prophet. In conjunction with Shadwell’s elevation in status, his supporters are satirically transformed from followers of a king of dullness to foll owers of a prophet of nonsensical reasoning. In this way, Dryden broadens the scope of ridicule to include those that, in reality, support Shadwell’s literary achievements. Of course, the purpose of this ridicule is to prompt the reader to reevaluate the soundness of praising a playwright that is not only compared to the prince of dullness, but the prophet of nonsense. It has been shown through an analysis of the ways in which the registers of religion and royalty combine with the registers of tautology and stupidity, that satire operates by employing humor and wit in order to communicate a deeper meaning. In the poem Mac Flecknoe, the element of surprise and a complete transformation of the values of words is what produces humor. The admirable traits of a hero become equated with folly and dullness. Readers of Mac Flecknoe find their worlds linguistically turned upside down; princes are turned into dunces and prophets are turned into idiots. Through an unexpected, extreme imbalance in diction, words take on a new meaning of absurdity, creating an inappropriate tone and a morally mutated context of idiocracy. However, it is this very characteristic of transformation and reversal that makes satire so effective in its humor and its message. Through satire, Dryden’s contempt for his literary contemporaries is persuasive ather than foreboding for the reader. Rather than view Dryden as full of malice toward Thomas Shadwell, the reader is prompted to view his or her own literary values from a different, clarifyi ng perspective. The result is that they come to realize the absurdity of their values, and with seriousness that could only be produced through tone and perspective of humor. Indeed, it is also this s ame aspect of satire that has caused Mac Flecknoe to receive such admiration, even some three hundred years after the poem’s publish. Whereas any writer can slander, to successfully produce a satire requires the skill of a true poet, such as Dryden. John Dryden’s Mac Flecknoe In the poem Mac Flecknoe, John Dryden’s contempt for his literary contemporaries practically drips from every word. However, the effect of this arouses neither anger nor sympathy in the reader, but laughter. How can such serious intentions produce such a seemingly inappropriate response? The answer is through satire. Satire employs wit and humor as a device of ridicule by transforming the meanings of words. Specifically, a sudden imbalance in diction triggers a sense of confusion as the reader struggles to place familiar words within an unusual context. What was once respectable becomes disreputable; what was once praised becomes condemned. As the new meanings of the words become clear, the realization of the mockery produces laughter. However, satire is much more than a means of slandering under the guise of humor. Indeed, few would appreciate the humor in defamation executed for its own sake. Rather, satire is amusing because the new meanings of words expose a formerly unnoticed, insightful truth about the old. For example, Mac Flecknoe undeniably ridicules, in particular, the literary ability and accomplishments of the restoration playwright, Thomas Shadwell. However, it also ridicules the underlying literary values that qualify Shadwell’s ability as a source of praise. Specifically, by intermingling the registers of royalty and religion with the low diction of stupidity and tautology, John Dryden’s satiric perspective both makes us laugh and reveals the absurdity of the literary values of his society. The imbalance in diction etween registers of royalty and stupidity and its multiple satiric effects can be shown through an analysis of Dryden’s introduction of Shadwell through his father Flecknoe, and his description of Shadwell’s future kingdom. The poem begins by describing the succession of a monarchy in a tone akin to an epic masterpiece. However, instead of the praise and admiration we would expect of an Odysseus-like hero, the aged prince Flecknoe proclaim s that his successor should only rule, who most resembles me: / Sh- alone my perfect image bears, / Mature in dullness from his tender years. Sh- alone, of all my sons, is he, / Who stands confirmed in full stupidity (lines 14 – 18). In these lines the combination of the words perfect and mature with dullness and stupidity effectively transforms the values of the former, and this is what creates the humorous effect. The reader expects the hero who succeeds to a crown to be endowed with qualities of perfection and maturity, especially in the context of an epic poem. However, within the context of this poem, dullness and stupidity take on the register of royalty: they are now the admirable traits of a King. The sudden imbalance in diction of these words surprises the reader, and, aware of their original meanings, the absurd new definitions produce laughter. Although the example above showed how the imbalance of diction associated with the register of royalty causes a humorous effect, Dryden’s satire of royalty throughout the poem al so communicates a broader commentary on the literary values of his society. This is especially shown in the description of Shadwell’s future Kingdom. According to Dryden, prostitution and bad writing characterize Shadwell’s realm. Here, amidst this monument of vanished minds, Flecknoe ambitiously designed his Sh-’s throne. / For ancient Dekker prophesied long since, / That in this pile should reign a mighty prince (lines 82, 86 – 88). The satiric perspective which transformed the values of the words perfection and dullness above can also be applied to the words ambitiously, mighty, and pile in this description. Indeed, it seems absurd for a mighty prince to aspire to rule a kingdom of brothels, and the image of such a situation is humorous. However, the deeper satiric meaning becomes clear once it is recognized that Shadwell’s realm is, in reality, a section of London known as Grub Street. In this enclosed section of London, freelance writers make a living selling everything from epitaphs to parliamentary speeches. Through the mockery of Shadwell’s kingdom as this part of London, Dryden ridicules the literary values of a society that make a place such as Grub Street possible. The effect of this on the reader is to rethink the validity of those values, as seen in the light of the satiric humor. The register of royalty is not the only theme exploited by Dryden throughout Mac Flecknoe for the sake of humor and the reformation of the values of his contemporary literary audiences. Indeed, just as literary audiences of the restoration had the necessary knowledge of Grub Street that is needed to appreciate the ridicule of it, they would have also found the religious references equally witty. Perhaps the best example of the satiric reversal of values concerning the religious register appears in the description of Shadwell’s coronation ceremony: From dusty shops neglected authors come, / Martyrs of pies, and relics of the bum (lines 100-1). Although the incongruency between the words martyrs and pies and between the words relics and bum is obvious, the transformation of values in this is case is not to be taken literally. Rather, the word martyr refers to the unsold books that were used to wrap pies and the word relics refers to those same unsold books that were used as toilet paper. Given this understanding, the line, Martyrs of pies, relics of the bum, is a combination of the highest register, the divine, and the lowest register, human refuse. Thus, in the context of the satire, the humo r is derived from the imagery of the unsold books and neglected authors, which paved the way for Prince Shadwell’s approach to the throne and were reduced to the contemptible state of pie wrappings and toilet paper. Although the idea of human waste as a red carpet for a King seems preposterous, it becomes more so when considering the King to be a Messiah. In addition to satirizing the societal values that produced Grub Street, Dryden denounces the values of literary audiences by equating them with followe rs of the prophet of tautology. Through the voice of Flecknoe, Dryden compares two playwrights of the early seventeenth century, Thomas Heywood and James Shirley, to the figures of Moses and Isaac in that they have prepared the way for the coming of Shadwell: Heywood and Shirley were but types of thee, / Thou last great prophet of tautology (29 – 30). In this line Dryden elevates the status of Shadwell by an increase in the diction of a prince to that of a prophet. However, just as in the context of the s atire Shadwell is succeeding to the throne of dullness, so does he take command of the backwards, circular philosophy of tautology as a prophet. In conjunction with Shadwell’s elevation in status, his supporters are satirically transformed from followers of a king of dullness to followers of a prophet of nonsensical reasoning. In this way, Dryden broadens the scope of ridicule to include those that, in reality, support reader to reevaluate the soundness of praising a playwright that is not only compared to the prince of dullness, but the prophet of nonsense. It has been shown through an analysis of the ways in which the registers of religion and royalty combine with the registers of tautology and stupidity, that satire operates by employing humor and wit in order to communicate a deeper meaning. In the poem Mac Flecknoe, the element of surprise and a complete transformation of the values of words is what produces humor. The admirable traits of a hero become equated with folly and dullness. Readers of Mac Flecknoe find their worlds linguistically turned upside down; princes are turned into dunces and prophets are turned into idiots. Through an unexpected, extreme imbalance in diction, words take on a new meaning of absurdity, creating an inappropriate tone and a morally mutated context of idiocracy. However, it is this very characteristic of transformation and reversal that makes satire so effective in its humor and its message. Through satire, Dryden’s contempt for his literary contemporaries is persuasive rather than foreboding for the reader. Rather than view Dryden as full of malice toward Thomas Shadwell, the reader is prompted to view his or her own literary values from a different, clarifying perspective. The result is that they come to realize the absurdity of their values, and with seriousness that could only be produced through tone and perspective of humor. Indeed, it is also this same aspect of satire that has caused Mac Flecknoe to receive such dmiration, even some three hundred years after the poem’s publish. Whereas any writer can slander, to successfully produce a satire requires the skill of a true poet, such as Dryden Dryden, Mac Flecknoe If it isnt too presumptious to make a statement about the entire age of the poetic style, I think the heroic couple gained popularity with the English poets because it was reminscent of classic epic poetry. On one hand, the evocation of the c lassics lent a sense of grandeur to the newly reinstated monarchy and the start of an empire. Yet the simplicity of the style (as opposed to the more rigid sonnets for instance) yields a mocking tone to the hopeful poet who dares to compare the present situation wi th the mightGreek/Romanempires. Like Drydens Annus Mirabilis invokes the image of a phoenix amidst the rubble and debris left after the Great Fire of London. While the patriotic intent is commendable, there is so much enthusiam in the hope for the bright future that it induces skeptism in the earnestness of the poet. The heroic couplet contributes to the grand feeling of rebirth, while the iambic pentameter and masculine rhymes make the reading sing -song, which in turns gives the view of the future childish and naive air. In Mac Flecknoe, Dryden uses the heroic couplet to satirize Shadwell by giving the poem an authentic, actual historic air. All the words seem to profess the succession of a wor

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Writing a High Quality Essay †History Informal Essay

Writing a High Quality Essay – History Informal Essay Free Online Research Papers Writing a High Quality Essay History Informal Essay There are many ways of writing a good essay. Many people have there own style of writing as well. But sticking to the basics helps writers. The key to writing a good essay is incorporating one’s own style into the basics of writing a paper. Things to keep in mind while writing a paper always is the basics. For starters it’s always good to be grammatically correct, not only will you not look stupid but you should get a better grade on the paper. Another good thing is to avoid using passive voice, and along with that getting ride of unnecessary words. This will help you get your point across cleaner without beating around the bush. And the last thing with the basics is the use of a large vocabulary. Change it up a bit, but don’t use words you wouldn’t normally use in a conversation. The next part in writing a good essay is adding your personal style to the essay. By personal style is what most teacher’s would say as, â€Å"In your own words.† And that ties in with using or having a larger vocabulary and just saying what u would normally say in any conversation. Another thing to do is to use different references to help make a point. For example I like to use quotes in my essays to help get my point across. But with all styles people have different opinions, so it is always good to have someone check read your work to see if someone with a different style can compare with the writing. So in conclusion the key to writing a good essay is using one’s own style along with the basics of writing a paper. If this wasn’t the case everyone’s essay should look exactly the same. Research Papers on Writing a High Quality Essay - History Informal EssayMind TravelHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionThree Concepts of PsychodynamicCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite ReligionHip-Hop is ArtPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyHarry Potter and the Deathly Hallows EssayEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenStandardized TestingAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into Asia

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The World Bank and Global Poverty Research Paper

The World Bank and Global Poverty - Research Paper Example Poverty cannot be measured just by a study of the people’s income levels. The purpose of this letter is to point out some of the weaknesses of the poverty measures that your organization relies upon to gauge the extent of poverty around the world. The World Bank uses absolute terms in its description of poverty. The bank classifies people living in ‘extreme poverty’ as those whose earnings are less than US$1.25 per day (PPP), and relative poverty for people earnings less than $2 per day. In light of these figures, an estimated 1.4 billion and 2.7 billion of people currently live in extreme poverty and relative poverty situations respectively. The World Bank, therefore, erroneously believes that the global economy can still sustain the reduction of poverty as envisaged in the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, since the number of people whose daily earnings are below $1.25 has been decreasing. The reality, though, is that, with the current poverty measures in pl ace, with the exclusion of China, the rest of the countries in the developing world as still far from achieving much in terms of poverty reduction. The main shortcoming of the poverty measurement tool (PPP) used by the World Bank is that it is premised upon intrinsic representation of lack of resources. It is evident that poverty lines do not provide accurate estimates of the level of poverty because poverty is all-encompassing. Evidence confirms that a number of the current statistics on poverty lines might have been justifiably grouped in the dollar-a-day category. In the latest round of poverty measurement, you organization’s line of $1.25 per person per day are premised upon the standard poverty line for 15 countries with the weakest economies in the world. These inconsistencies call for a new approach to measuring poverty by your organization. An alternative approach revolving around the estimation of the poverty based on the median country normally brings about signific antly higher figures of the poor, especially in highly populated countries such as India and China. Moreover, the new World Bank approach ignores the rate of inflation in developed countries like the United States; a factor that would have pushed the original $1.08 mark to $1.45 for 2005, with clear repercussions on the equivalent estimates of people in poverty, and thus for the realization of the MDGs on the issue by 2015. The study of earnings by people within a given country and across the world in general, gives a skewed understanding of poverty in favour of income as opposed to other factors that stem from poverty and enhance its pangs on the affected persons. In light of this disparity, a multi-dimensional measurement of poverty would provide a more all-encompassing understanding of poverty. Multi-dimensional poverty index Your organization’s reliance upon measurements of just relative earnings to ascertain the level of poverty covers only a small section of the whole i ssue and falls short of comprehensively describing the complex nature of poverty. I believe that your approach to measuring poverty should involve an evaluation and measurement of other factors, which are associated with the multi-dimensional disposition of the situation as well. These encompass factors such as the rate of joblessness, the level of poor health care or educational

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Contemporary Issues In Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Contemporary Issues In Marketing - Essay Example Marketing has over the years emerged as a prime business concept and pertinent organisational function. It has been observed that marketing is a key towards attaining desired level of success for every company. With the emergence of 21st century, technology has started to play a vital role for the organisations to prepare their marketing mix related strategies and also their overall product assortment (Brown, 2001). In the 21st century, the traditional approaches related to marketing have started to depict their limitations owing to the fact that companies have quite less amount of direct contact with their existing as well as prospective customers. The aspect of information which is quite readily obtainable through the advent of internet has made consumers to become more passive as well as homogenous. Therefore, companies are increasingly finding the need to devise strategic initiatives to retain their customer base. Customer need identification has become one of the leading strategies incorporated in marketing to derive competitive advantage. Companies are also attempting to create inimitable marketing strategies to lure the customers towards their offerings which would in turn enable them establish their brand recognition in the market (Kamei, 2000). In order to comprehend the changing scenario in marketing in the 21st century, Tesco Plc has been selected.Tesco was founded back in 1919 as a m arket stall in London’s East End. From its foundation to till now the company’s business has attained tremendous growth in its global operations. Presently, the company functions in fourteen markets of Asia, North America and Europe. It employs over 500,000 people and serves 10 million customers worldwide in a single week (Tesco Plc, 2012). The company’s headquarter is located in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. Tesco is committed to offer the best shopping experience to its diverse range of customers. Moreover, the company is determined to serve its varied customers, communities and partners in best possible way (Tesco, 2012). At present, the company is regarded as one of the largest and successful food retailers operating in the United Kingdom along with its operations in more than 2318 stores located across the world. The company sells more than 40,000 food items in its distinctly located superstores. Additionally, the company is also engaged in clothing and no n-food product activities (University of Exeter, 2004). The 21st century has witnessed drastic socio-economic changes along with information technology changes. These changes help various organisations to overcome a few of their limitations related to business operation and provided organisations with numerous opportunities to expand their business and earn substantial profit. These changes along with the globalisation and liberalisation process have drastically influenced the business doing processes including marketing. The changes brought new ideas and terms in the marketing sector such as E-Commerce and have reasonably influenced marketing ethics as well as the concept of brand and brand development have got tremendously popular among the organisations and widely distributed customers. E-Marketing Marketing is a broad concept, apart from selling and purchasing of tangible or intangible (services) goods, it comprises all those activities that are related with selling and purchasi ng of goods and services. The present marketing concept significantly varies from those of the traditional concept. The recent development in the marketing segment has given a birth to E-Marketing, relatively new term which has increased the scope of marketing and has provided business and customers a convenient way for interacting with each other. Electronic marketing or E-marketing essentially refers to utilisation of marketing techniques through electronic media, particularly

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Introduction to Databases Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 4

Introduction to Databases - Assignment Example This means the DROP operation will be performed not only on the primary key but also on all referencing foreign keys. Secondly, to avoid having null values as primary keys, always specify the primary key to auto increment whenever the database is populated. One foreign key from a table can only refer to a single primary key on another table. Moreover, it is unacceptable for the same foreign key to refer to multiple primary keys. For instance, department_id on the employee table refers to the primary key department_id on the department table and not the department_id on the job_history table. The data type and values of foreign key that are used in the database schema must match with the data types and values of primary key or unique columns for that matter. The data values of country_id on countries table, say 11, should be the same as that of country_id on the locations table. Similarly, the data type should also be same. If region_id in the regions table is an integer, then region_id on the countries table must also be an integer and not a double or

Friday, November 15, 2019

Human behaviour and Lifespan Development in Social Care

Human behaviour and Lifespan Development in Social Care Suzanna Pickering Social Workers are increasingly referring to theories of the life cycle, life span development and human behaviours these theories indicate the relationship of particular biological ages of life to psychological, social and development changes. From a theoretical perspective key theories of human growth and development will be discussed focusing on infants, highlighting the importance of professionals observing a child and making a judgment on their development and needs. Therefore, the theories will be applied to social work, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of taking a life span perspective, taking into account gender, culture and individuality. Attachment and the different theories associated with attachment will enable us to understand people in a more thorough manner and in particular the circumstances that service users may be faced with considering diversity, their individual cultural needs and beliefs. Whilst staying within the boundaries, values and Ethics set down by the GSCC. It is widely accepted that parent and child relationship plays a central role in the psychological development. (Pg1 Attachment and Development) Goldburg, S. (2000) Attachment and Development, London: Arnold. The term development refers to the process by which a child, or more generally an organism (human or animal) grows and changes through its lifespan. In humans the most dramatic developmental changes occur in infancy and childhood, as the newborn develops into a young adult capable of becoming a parent himself or herself. From its origins much of developmental psychology has thus been concerned with child psychology, and with the changes from infancy through to adolescence. Smith, P.K. and Cowie, H. (1996) Understanding Childrens Development (2nd ed.), Oxford: Blackwell. The term attachment is described in Collins Dictionary of Social Work (Thomas, M. and Pierson, J. (1995), London: Harper Collins) as a long lasting emotional bond between two individuals, involving their seeking proximity to each other and having pleasure in each others company. Typically attachment is developed by infants towards their principal care-givers, but it may also characterize feelings between other people, or between a person and some object. Attachment is a strong emotional bond that develops between infant and caregiver, providing the infant with emotional security. By the second half of the first year, infants are said to become attached to familiar people who have responded to their need for physical care and stimulation. (Bowlby, J 1998) How these attachments develop and whether attachment theory provides a sound basis for advice on how to raise children have been intense topics of theoretical debate. Attachment refers to the interactive reciprocal relationship that infants and young children experience and develop with their primary caregiver(Bowlby, 1982). Many times this caregiver is the infants biological mother. In recent times the population of working mothers has increased dramatically. Due to this demographic change, the primary caregiver for a child is sometimes the biological father and other relatives such as aunts, uncles, grandparents, older siblings, nannies or day care providers.There are also Children in our country who for various reasons find themselves in the care of foster or adoptive parents. Following birth is a rapid area of learning for the child. A new born baby can see approximately 20 cm and follow a moving object, smell, hear and recognise voices. Checks are preformed on the newborn to ensure nothing obvious is wrong, these checks include Reflexes, Moro response (toes curling), Babinski (grasps fingers and hangs), ensuring that infant is rooting for the breast, sucking swallowing, step and stepping. The new born is totally reliant on the caregiver as it is not equipped to survive without it. The caregiver provides food, warmth and protection, for example when a baby cries it is for a reason this is a form of communication. Babies know that when they cry somebody will come and will ensure to satisfy the babies needs. Chronologically, this is the period of infancy through the first one or two years of life. The child, well-handled, nurtured and loved, develops trust and security and a basic optimism. Badly handled, he becomes insecure and mistrustful.(Erikson E Trus t Vs Mistrust 8 Stages of Development) cited Child Development Information (2009) Children develop and grow from the moment they are conceived until early adulthood, showing many changes within their abilities. Whilst no two children will develop at exactly the same time, as Social Workers we use benchmarks to observe behaviours and development. Understanding the stage and process of development can help a Social Worker identify the achievement of developmental milestones such as a Childs first step or first words and to acknowledge the child is developing normally within the benchmarks we work. Attachment theory is a psychological, evolutionary and ethological theory that forms relationships. One important principle of attachment theory is that a young child needs to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for social and emotional development to occur normally. The theory was formulated by psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby. The area of the infant is considered by Bowlby as sensitivity period. Within attachment theory, infant behaviour associated with attachment is primarily the seeking of familiarity of an attachment figure in stressful situations. Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive to their needs and who remain as consistent caregivers for some months during the period from about six months to two years of age. During the latter part of this period, children begin to use attachment figures as a secure base to explore from and return to with the knowledge that a parent will be where they left them in the case of a secure attachment. Separation anxiety or grief following the loss of an attachment figure is considered to be a normal and adaptive response for an attached infant. The child will show a clear preference for the primary caregiver on their return; this will help guide the individuals feelings, thoughts and expectations in later relationships. Attachment theorists point to data that favour the caregiver responsiveness hypothesis. For example, it has been found that an infants crying changes over the first year much more than the mothers responsiveness to the crying does. Moreover, the mothers responsiveness over a 3-month period predicts the infants over the 3 months significantly better than the infants crying predicts the mothers subsequent responsiveness to crying. In short, the mother appears to influence the infants crying more than the infant influences the mothers responsiveness to crying (Bell Ainsworth, 1972). As a social worker we need to gain an understanding of the whole child, their development and their life course. It is important to take a range of theories and perspectives into account that support us in understanding childrens growth and development and individual experience, the role and the impact of their families and the influence of processes and systems in their lives. Through this you should be able to see beyond the description of the child, to give meaning to their lives and experiences. Thus we are recognising the child as an individual. We need to acknowledge there are children with unique and specific needs that may impact on their individual development and behaviour, certainly on their experiences and how others view and respond to them, a good example would be the experience and views of a child with a disability. Pg 31 SW humanÂÂ   deve. We need to recognise that communities raise children in diverse ways with each culture encouraging the kinds of habits and traits that help them to integrate and function within that culture, (pg 33 Social work and human development) however we need to be mindful of the laws and human rights that we have within the United Kingdom whilst being aware of cultural diversities and preferences. Recognising the importance of culture within the childs development is important for a number of reasons. Firstly we need to identify those aspects of development that impact on all children ,not just through theories and studies based on white, middle class children living with a western culture. Secondly we need to have an understanding of the childs family culture and how that impacts on the child; we need to understand the impact of cultural beliefs as part of that environment. We need to consider how different cultural beliefs impact on how people experience their lives. Attachment process for the parents seems to begin with the development of an initial emotional bond and then extends to more and more skilful attachment behaviours. For the infant, the process is said to begin with attachment behaviours and then progresses to the full characteristics of attachment somewhat later (Atkinson et al 2000). Sigmund Freud however, also offered a view on the area of attachment and his view was later known as the The Cupboard Theory. This theory stated that the absence of the mother would frighten the baby into believing that it would not be nourished. This theory offered by Freud has received a great deal of criticism on the basis that there is no evidence to suggest that the infant associates the mother entirely with nourishment. Bowlbys view supplemented these criticisms as he believed that babies have inborn tendencies towards the mother and are not attached by food or warmth. Another key development which was argued disproved Freuds theory and offered support towards the view of Bowlby was an experiment which was conducted by Harlow and Harlow in 1977. This experiment consisted of Rhesus monkeys been raised without their mothers. The Monkeys were housed is isolated cages with a model mother either made from wire or terry-towel cloth. The terry-towel cloth had no provision in which to feed the monkeys whereas the wire mother figure did in the form of milk yielding nipples. The study concluded that every time the monkeys were frightened they would seek support and comfort from the warm non-food providing terry-towel cloth model as opposed to the cold food providing wire model. These findings clearly disputed the view of Freuds Cupboard theory. And it indicated, as Bowlby would argue, that a mothers love is not for nourishing but for comforting and children, like the rhesus monkeys, use teddy bears for comfort if they feel in anyway threatened (Gleightman, H . et al 1999).ÂÂ   Later criticisms of attachment theory relate to temperament, the complexity of social relationships, and the limitations of discrete patterns for classifications. Attachment theory has been significantly modified as a result of empirical research, but the concepts have become generally accepted, although we are no longer working with just a Euro centric base, we use these theories as a benchmark within Social Work taking into account individual cultures and beliefs. Another disadvantage for a child is having a good attachment with a poor parent; this could cause lack of trust, mistrust and the child then as having to care for themselves and possibly siblings. Although criticisms have been made of the Theory of Attachment and certain aspects of the work of Bowlby, Ainsworth etc I feel that the theory of attachment has developed immensely through their work. It can certainly be argued that their work will and will continue to contributed to our understanding of how parent and child attachments develop and I feel that their work provides us with reasoning as to why children may develop in different ways. Although there are criticisms which exist of the theories, I feel that it can be clearly argued that they give us a solid information base as to why attachment is important in the development of infants and children. The overall consensus surrounding attachment and the associated debates have in past suffered criticism from feminist groups too. For example, criticisms surrounding Bowlbys work have been made highlighting that he maintains that the mother should be the main carer of the infant and that her continuous care should be present while the child is growing and developing (Gross, R. 1999). This has been argued to be sexist as the implication is that the mother will not work and will automatically undertake child rearing roles. It can be argued once again that this presumption is not only sexist but as highlighted previously, culturally unethical too. One major argument which has been offered by Gross R. in 1999 to support the feminist view is that a stable network of adults offers adequate care and in some cases can have advantages over a system where the mother has the meet all the infants needs (Gross, R. 1999).

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Computers Affecting Our Lives :: essays research papers

Computers   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Since the beginning of human life, we as a people have always strived to obtain machines or tools to make our lives easier. Before the computer was invented in 1822, people were performing boring, repetitive tasks that we now take for granted. The computer, a modern complex machine, now accomplishes things we never thought possible. Computers, in general, have many benefits for they provide entertainment, help modern cities function, above all, make the most aggravating and mundane tasks incredibly simple.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One of the least important aspects of computers is that it provides entertainment and yet this is the sole reason why many people buy computers. The gaming and entertainment industry has become extremely large in the world, the products they sell range from shareware games to adult blood and gore. For instance, the 3D-shooter series, Quake, has sold millions of copies and essentially everyone in the world has seen it or played it. The entertainment industry not only provides gaming amusement but it also contributes learning programs, for children and adults, to help individuals excel in a certain trouble areas. Furthermore, computers also are also capable of training military personal in a virtual reality environment. An example of this is the U.S. and Canadian military, they both train soldiers and pilots in the ways of war using high tech computers and virtual reality equipment. To sum up, entertainment on the computer may not be important but is does satisfy mi llion of people worldwide.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Cities as we know them today would not exist if it were not for the help of the computer. In a modern city hundreds of items are under control by computers and most of them we take for granted. For example, the traffic lights at all intersections are controlled by computers and sometimes even with the support of underground sensors. Without computers the entire electrical grid would fail and all of the world’s neoteric population would be without precious electricity. Another instance in which computers aid the modern city is the sewage and water system. Without computers, entire series of pumps and water stations would seize and stop working, which translates to a city without running water. On the whole, computers are a necessary innovation to help modern cities function to their fullest potential.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One of the most important uses of the computer is that it provides a person with a tool that can make the most difficult tasks incredibly insignificant. Computers Affecting Our Lives :: essays research papers Computers   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Since the beginning of human life, we as a people have always strived to obtain machines or tools to make our lives easier. Before the computer was invented in 1822, people were performing boring, repetitive tasks that we now take for granted. The computer, a modern complex machine, now accomplishes things we never thought possible. Computers, in general, have many benefits for they provide entertainment, help modern cities function, above all, make the most aggravating and mundane tasks incredibly simple.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One of the least important aspects of computers is that it provides entertainment and yet this is the sole reason why many people buy computers. The gaming and entertainment industry has become extremely large in the world, the products they sell range from shareware games to adult blood and gore. For instance, the 3D-shooter series, Quake, has sold millions of copies and essentially everyone in the world has seen it or played it. The entertainment industry not only provides gaming amusement but it also contributes learning programs, for children and adults, to help individuals excel in a certain trouble areas. Furthermore, computers also are also capable of training military personal in a virtual reality environment. An example of this is the U.S. and Canadian military, they both train soldiers and pilots in the ways of war using high tech computers and virtual reality equipment. To sum up, entertainment on the computer may not be important but is does satisfy mi llion of people worldwide.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Cities as we know them today would not exist if it were not for the help of the computer. In a modern city hundreds of items are under control by computers and most of them we take for granted. For example, the traffic lights at all intersections are controlled by computers and sometimes even with the support of underground sensors. Without computers the entire electrical grid would fail and all of the world’s neoteric population would be without precious electricity. Another instance in which computers aid the modern city is the sewage and water system. Without computers, entire series of pumps and water stations would seize and stop working, which translates to a city without running water. On the whole, computers are a necessary innovation to help modern cities function to their fullest potential.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One of the most important uses of the computer is that it provides a person with a tool that can make the most difficult tasks incredibly insignificant.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Music and the african-american people

Think about black music and you immediately come up with black gospel music, right? There are a large number of famous soul singers nowadays who began as gospel music artists. This impressive list includes, among others, James Brown, Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles, Lou Rawls, Sam Cooke and Otis Redding, says Leonard Goines in the online article â€Å"Gospel Music and the Black Consciousness†.In terms of history, Goines noted that black gospel music grew out of the late 19th and early 20th century folk church and is essentially created in a context of individual and collective spontaneity. As a total manifestation, black gospel can be viewed as a synthesis of West African and Afro-American music, dance, poetry, oratory and drama. There are two basic sources from which the aesthetic ideals of gospel singing have been derived.These are the free-style collective improvisations utilized by congregations in the black church and the black gospel preacher's rhetorical solo style. Since the beginning of their history in the plantation praise houses, black preachers have utilized folk poetry and the vivid phrase to excite the emotions and involve the participation of their congregations. Possessing special oratorical skills marked by a call-and-response format and punctuated with groans and gestures, these master preachers have been able to create an aura of excitement and hope rarely equaled (Goines, 2004)I would have to agree with Goines when he pointed out gospel has distilled the aesthetic essence of the black arts into a unified whole. The uniqueness of black gospel music, in my opinion, is in the experience itself when you listen to it. As noted by Goines, few people can experience gospel in its true cultural setting and fail to hear black poetry in the black preacher's sermon. Nor can they fail to see drama in the emotion-packed performance of a black gospel choir interacting with its congregation; nor fail to see dance in the gospel shout.It is also in this aspect that I would say yes, there is such a thing as a Black Style. Anyone who listens to gospel music can easily identify if the singer is black or not. The soulfulness and the emotions revealed in black gospel music is definitely a manifestation of the proud cultural heritage of the African-American people. Source: Goines, Leonard 2004: Gospel Music and the Black Consciousness [online] Available at: http://www. afgen. com/gospel21. html [cited on May 24, 2006]

Friday, November 8, 2019

Movie Analysis of Life Is Beautiful.

Movie Analysis of Life Is Beautiful. By: Lee A. ZitoLife is Beautiful is a different kind of Holocaust film. It approaches the horrific ordeal in a way that involves viewers comedically and romantically in the beginning, but then utilizes these tools as a way to lure viewers to experience the Holocaust much like the Jews did. As a sudden change to the happiness and enjoyment of their lives.A few years ago I was flipping through the channels and saw that Life Is Beautiful had just started. I had heard a lot of hype about it so I decided to watch it. All I knew about it was that it was a Holocaust movie, that was it. I was shocked to find myself laughing at how funny it was, especially in the beginning. After a couple of minutes I sort of forgot I was watching a Holocaust movie, it felt more like I was watching a Foreign Comedy that took place in the 40's.English: The main gate at the former Nazi death ca...Suddenly the main characters are imprisoned and sent to a concentration camp. But it's different than watching any o ther movie where the main characters are sent off to certain death. You've lived almost an hour observing their lives, how husband and wife met. You've shared in their romance, joy, and laughter, and now you share their fear and uncertainty as they are sent to a Nazi death camp.The main character Guido is with his young son who can not help but ask his father question after question. Guido himself is a little unsure, but he knows it can not be good. For his son's sake he turns uncertain danger into a game, where his son learns silence and hiding is the key to winning the grand prize in the game his father has created, a tank.This is not...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Zoroaster Outline Essays

Zoroaster Outline Essays Zoroaster Outline Essay Zoroaster Outline Essay Essay Topic: The Satanic Verses Zoroastrianism l. Zoroastrianism is a monotheistic religion that was once widespread in the Near East and Middle East. (Molloy 438) A. It spread widely, but is now mostly present in India. (Molloy 438) B. Some see possible influence on the development of Essenes, early Christianity, and Islam. (Molloy 438) II. The prophet Zoroaster, the founder of the religion, was born about 650 BCE in what is now Iran. (Molloy 438) A. He was surrounded by the worship of nature gods, common to his area of upbringing. (Molloy 438) i. He did not believe in his religions practices of the sacrifice of animals at the fire ltars and the power of the priests. (Molloy 438) B. At age 30, Zoroaster experienced a vision which completely changed his life. (Molloy 438) i. He felt himself transported to heaven by a spirit he called Vohu Manah (good mind) into the presence of the High God Ahura Mazda (wise lord). (Molloy 438) C. Zoroasters new message was initially met with strong rejection, which he blamed on demons (daevas) and the satanic head of evil forces, Angra Mainyu (wicked spirit). (Molloy 438) i. His bitter experiences made him have further belief in good vs. evil. Molloy 438) D. Eventually Zoroasters teachings reached an Iranian King named Vishtaspa, and he used his power to spread Zoroasters new religion. (Molloy 438) Ill. Zoroastrianism has one sacred religious text, called The Avesta. (Boyce 238) A. It is supposed to be written by Zoroaster himself, and includes the seventeen Gathas (hymns), Yasna Haptanhaiti (Worship of the Seven Chapters, a short liturgy accompanying the daily act of priestly worship), and two very holy manthras. (Boyce 238) B. The entirety of The Avesta was written down in Iran, under the Sasanian ynasty, and was then a massive compilation in twenty-one books. (Boyce 238) C. Only a few copies were made, and in the destruction which later attended the Arab, Turkish, and Mongol conquests of Iran all were destroyed. (Boyce 238) D. The surviving Avesta consists of liturgies, hymns, and prayers. (Boyce 238) V. Zoroastrianism revolves around the war between good and evil, which are always present. (Hinnells 81) A. Zoroaster taught that God was the sole Good Creator of all things, of sun, moon and stars, of the spiritual and material worlds, of man and beast. Hinnells 81) B. He (Ahura Mazda) is in no way responsible for evil in the world; this comes from the Destructive Spirit (Angra Mainyu) whose nature is violent and destructive. (Hinnells) C. The world is a battleground in which the forces of good and evil do battle. (Hinnells) D. The spirit of light and good in the world is known as Spenta Mainyu (holy spirit ). (Molloy 438) V. Zoroastrianism has belief of divine Judgement and in an afterlife of reward or punishment, which begins at death. (Molloy 438) A. During life, humans are involved in a cosmic struggle between good and evil. Molloy 438) a) These good actions may consist of: telling the truth, dealing honestly with others, cultivating farmland, and treating animals kindly. (Molloy 438) B. Final Judgement begins at death when an individuals soul must cross a bridge that can lead to paradise. (Molloy 438) i. If the individual has been good, the bridge is wide and the Journey to paradise is easy; but if the individual has been evil, the bridge becomes so narrow that the soul falls deep into the depths of hell. (Molloy 438) C. There is also a belief in the end of all times. (Molloy 438) i. When the world comes to an end, there will be a resurrection of all bodies and a great general Judgement; at this time the world will be purified by fire, which will punish the evil but leave the good untouched. (Molloy 438) VI. Zoroastrianism has long been a highly ritualistic religion. (Molloy 438) A. A Zoroastrian has the duty to pray five times daily (at sunrise, noon, sunset, midnight, and dawn) in the presence of fire, the symbol of righteousness. (Boyce 247) i. He prays standing, and while uttering the appointed prayers (which include verses from he Gathas) unties and reties the kutsi. Boyce 247) a) The kutsi is a sacred cord, which should be worn constantly. (Boyce 247) B. Ceremonies at death are considered very important and have a double aim: to isolate the impurity of the dead body and give help to the soul. (Boyce 249) i. The body is wrapped into a cotton shroud and carried on an iron bier, and after due prayers by priests, to a stone tower (dakhma), where the polluting f lesh is quickly eaten by vultures and the bones are bleached by sun and wind. (Boyce 249) it. Mourners ollow the bier at a distance, two by two, and afterwards make ablutions. Boyce 249) Molloy, Michael. Zoroastrianism. Experiencing the Worlds Religions: Tradition, Challenge, and Change/ Michael Molloy. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2013. 438-439. Print. Boyce, Mary. Zoroastrianism. The Penguin Handbook of the Worlds Living Religions/ Ed. John R. Hinnells. Strand: Penguin Group, 2010. 238-249. Print Hinnells, John. The Cosmic Battle: Zoroastrianism. Eerdmans Handbook to the Worlds Religions/ Ed. R. Pierce Beaver. Herts: Lion Publishing, 1982. 80-87. Print.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis Research Paper

Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis - Research Paper Example Due to its effect on various body parts, rheumatoid arthritis is usually known as system illness and at times it is referred to as a rheumatoid disease. Â  Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic illness that is without syndromes and as such, it can exist in a patient’s body for several years without being noticed. The meeting point of two body parts to allow movement is referred to as a joint. Consequently, arthritis refers to an inflamed joint. Rheumatoid arthritis results in the destruction of ligaments, bones, and cartilage leading to a deformed joint. These damages can occur early and progress slowly in the course of the disease development. According to statistics, in the United States alone, rheumatoid arthritis affects nearly 1.3 million individuals occurring more commonly in women than men. Â  Rheumatoid arthritis has no known cause. However, infection agents, which include bacteria, fungi, and viruses, have over a long period been suspected as the cause but no approval has been made to this effect. Scientists across the globe believe that the disease could be inherited genetically. Through scientific research, certain genes have been identified as having the ability to increase the risk of contracting rheumatoid arthritis. Certain infections and environmental factors are suspected to trigger immune system activation in susceptible individuals. The misdirected immune system as result invades and attack body tissues resulting ending up in the inflammation of various body parts such as the eyes, lungs, and joints. Â  Tissue inflammation degree determines the appearance of rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. The disease is usually active on occasion of inflamed body tissues and appears to be in remission during periods when there is reduced tissue inflammation.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Comparing Income Statements From Different Industries Essay

Comparing Income Statements From Different Industries - Essay Example erent companies include different factors in their income statements, but on a general node there is basic information and format expressing company’s financial status for a particular business year. There are three major sections of an income statement, one describing incomes, second is cost of goods (expenses) and third projecting depreciations, taxes and interests. Here is a view of income statements taken from four different companies which operate in four different sectors: For the fiscal year 2010-2011, Ford Motors Company progressed to quite a great extent from the year 2009-2010. The income statement projected that the company had 17% gross profit margin out of the total revenue at the end of the business year 2011. Even having intensive liabilities, the company generated more profits with respect to the previous fiscal year (Ford Motor Company, 2012). With 514 stores operating in five different States, Winn-Dixie at the end of year 2010-2011 projected gross profit margin $28.9 million which was unexpectedly less than the fiscal year 2010. The gross profit margin of the company for 2011 was 27 % of the total revenue slightly less than the year 2010, which showed natural sales decrease within entire market segment. For the fiscal year 2010-2011, Johnson and Johnson a leading pharmaceutical company showed potential revenue and profit margins. The company projected net profit margins of 15% with gross profits of 64 % of the total revenue in its annual income statement 2011 (Bloomberg, 2012). According to company’s annual report 2011, Lenovo group expresses the gross profit margin 11% of total revenue. It is one of the leading companies in the technology sector which generates conventional profits in the technology market segment (Buffett & Clark, 2008). By comparing the income statements of all four companies, it can be said that companies differ to a great extent in respect of product and services they offer. An automobile company is totally