Friday, May 31, 2019
It is important for everyone to get comely sleep, but many another(prenominal) people lots ignore it. If people do non get enough sleep they may experience sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation can take for negative effects. When people do not get enough sleep or less, they may feel crabby and unable to function as well as they usually do the nigh day. Balancing work and parenting as a single parent in todays society is tough. Juggling children, work, victorious care of home, and cart the children to extramarital activities are a lot for ones plate. As single parent I had my share of sleepless nighttimes as well, mostly when either my children fall out sick or when I work extra shift at work. The last time I remember when I had a sleepless night was when both of these factors together came to hunt me. I agreed to work extra hours at the hospital because the night shift writing table was unable to come into work. Although I had worked a 12 hour shift, I still had enough ene rgy to work at less five to a greater extent hours that I had agreed too. At the end of my shift I was ready for a hot shower and my warm bed to rest. My daughter came down with a fever that night. She was vomiting, and could not keep any fluids down. My daughter was restless and was only able to sleep an hour at a time. I wasnt truly able to sleep at all because I was constantly checking her temperature. Each time she vomited or even tossed and fussed in her sleep I was up with her. Of flow when the sun had risen I immediately took my daughter to the doctor. That morning I wasnt myself at all I was impatient, irritable, and moodiness with everything. I rushed my boys out of the earth-closet and to get dressed. I withal did weird things handle put my daughters shoes on the wrong foot and put her cup at bottom my ... ...ebMD, 2005-2010).There are many treatments and drug remedies for sleeplessness, but it is important to know that what works for one may not work for another. S ome prescription medications like Lunesta, Rozerem, Sonata, or Ambien can be the best sleeplessness cure for a psyche (Sleep Remedies, 2010). Another option of drug remedies is cold medications that can often have benefit of functioning as a sleeping medication (Sleep Remedies, 2010). Sleep is essential for a persons health and wellbeing. Without enough of rest, the body does not get the energy that it need to function. Sleep deprivation and sleep disorders can have negative effect on a person emotionally. A person not getting enough sleep their brain is not fully equipped problem-solving and decision-making. People suffering for sleep disorders should seek medical attention to benefactor reduce sleepiness. Sleep Deprivation and Reduction, Sleep Disorders, and the Drugs used toIt is important for everyone to get enough sleep, but many people often ignore it. If people do not get enough sleep they may experience sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation can have negativ e effects. When people do not get enough sleep or less, they may feel crabby and unable to function as well as they usually do the next day. Balancing work and parenting as a single parent in todays society is tough. Juggling children, work, taking care of home, and cart the children to extracurricular activities are a lot for ones plate. As single parent I had my share of sleepless nights as well, mostly when either my children fall sick or when I work extra shift at work. The last time I remember when I had a sleepless night was when both of these factors together came to hunt me. I agreed to work extra hours at the hospital because the night shift secretary was unable to come into work. Although I had worked a 12 hour shift, I still had enough energy to work at less five more hours that I had agreed too. At the end of my shift I was ready for a hot shower and my warm bed to rest. My daughter came down with a fever that night. She was vomiting, and could not keep any fluids down. My daughter was restless and was only able to sleep an hour at a time. I wasnt really able to sleep at all because I was constantly checking her temperature. Each time she vomited or even tossed and fussed in her sleep I was up with her. Of course when the sun had risen I immediately took my daughter to the doctor. That morning I wasnt myself at all I was impatient, irritable, and moodiness with everything. I rushed my boys out of the bathroom and to get dressed. I also did weird things like put my daughters shoes on the wrong foot and put her cup inside my ... ...ebMD, 2005-2010).There are many treatments and drug remedies for sleeplessness, but it is important to know that what works for one may not work for another. Some prescription medications like Lunesta, Rozerem, Sonata, or Ambien can be the best sleeplessness cure for a person (Sleep Remedies, 2010). Another option of drug remedies is cold medications that can often have benefit of functioning as a sleeping medication (Sl eep Remedies, 2010). Sleep is essential for a persons health and wellbeing. Without enough of rest, the body does not get the energy that it needs to function. Sleep deprivation and sleep disorders can have negative effect on a person emotionally. A person not getting enough sleep their brain is not fully equipped problem-solving and decision-making. People suffering for sleep disorders should seek medical attention to help reduce sleepiness.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
get the Wind, based on the famous Scopes Monkey Trial in the small town Dayton, Tennessee, was written by Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee. The range was not intended to depict the actual history or the proceedings in the Scopes trial only if it was used as a vehicle for exploring social anxiety and ant-intellectualism that existed in the Americas during the1950s. Lawrence and Lee wrote the play as a response to the threat to intellectual exemption presented by the anti-Communist hysteria of the McCarthy era. The major themes depicted in the Inherit the Wind include the intellectual curiosity, narrow-mindedness or limited perception, the importance of religion, and the relationship between the perception of others and self-worth portrayed by the characters in the play. The characters include Henry Drummond, Matthew Harrison Brady, E.K Hornbeck, Bert Cates and Rachel Brown they represented the ideas and ways of thinking that existed then and now.Inherit the Wind took place in the small town of Hillsboro in which the time was not too long ago. Bert Cates, a young teacher, who is imprisoned in the jail for teaching evolution to his soaring school biology class. The Reverends daughter and Cates fiance, Rachel, urges Cates to tell the town what he did was falsely and he is sorry however, the town firmly believes that Cates is wrong and awaiting for Matthew Harrison Brady to come to town to prosecute Cates. Brady is a three time presidential candidate and firm believer in the Bible. The town hung a banner instruct your Bible on courthouse and paraded the streets enthusiastically singing Give me that old-time religion when Brady arrives into town. Also arriving in Hillsboro, is E.K Hornbeck of the Baltimore Herald, who is cynical reporter and comments on everything. Hornbeck informs Brady that he will be arguing against Henry Drummond in court. The town sees Drummond as the devils advocate. Drummond arrives in town with little notice and is shunned by the peop le in town. In the course of the trial, Brady starts tabu confidently and chooses assurees who profess strong religious belief. Brady calls for Rachel to be on the witness stand and twists her words about what Cates has told her. Meanwhile, the judge excludes all Drummonds scientific witness on the grounds of evolution itself is not on trial. D... ...will appeal the case however, his victory is setting an example for others who choose to think. It will make it easier for the next person. Cates finds a new life with Rachel away from the small town Hillsboro. The trial in Hillsboro is an allegory for the attitude in the 1950s. In the 50s, the government condemns people who back up Communism thus leading to the censorious climate of McCarthyism. In addition to the witch-hunt and anti-Communist hysteria, regional conflicts between northern and southern states in the east of America. Laurence and Lee wrote the play to parallel some of conflicts of idea and subtly review them to the people. It was the method of exploring the major themes in the theses conflicts between intellectuals and believers, thinkers vs. narrow mindedness, and the relationship between the perception of others and self worth. Ultimately, Inherit the Wind encourages the right to think and the freedom of thought. In the attacking the value of free thought and speech upon which this country is built, nothing is obtained just like the situation in which Brady attacks his own house and inherits the windnothing.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Great ExpectationsWhat techniques does Dickens use to redeem the characters?Dickens uses a variety of techniques in order to present hischaracters. By doing this it gives us a break-dance and a clearer image ofthe characters.The first technique Ill consider is his use of language which he usesvery well. This technique is used to present his characters veryeffectively. Dickens aim is to show how physically and mentallydestroyed Ms. Havisham is. He does this by surrounding her with imagesand language of death. The phrase corpse-like tells us this. Itshows the audience that Ms. Havisham is half alive yet half dead. Thatshe looks like a corpse. The words corpse-like suggests that Ms.Havisham is the living dead. By using this language it will give thereader an image and cerebration on how Ms. Havisham looks and feels. Dickensalso tells us that she has, a dead lull upon her. This is implyingthat she no longer has sustenance or energy. She looks like as if she isdying. Almost life less . It suggests that Ms. Havisham is very calmand quiet. Dickens uses these words to illustrate that Ms. Havisham isdying and her mental state is or has been destroyed. Grave clothesis also showing the audience that she has an fashion of a persondead. He continues to use this because he is using languages of deathand images of death and by using this it will give the reader an evenbetter impression of Ms. Havisham. Dickens kat onces that nobody wearsgrave clothes apart from people who are dead and buried. It is as ifshe has buried herself alive in the house because her spirit has beenbroken.Dickens also uses languages of loss. The words once white, now chickenhearted is implying she had a prime, and now she is past it. It alsosuggests that Ms. Havishams belongings were once white, now yellowas well. Dickens wants to show the readers that his protagonist hasnothing left, therefore he links Ms. Havisham to the idea of loss,she has lost its lustre, she has even lost her human structure , and pectus had dropped. Her fianc has left her and she cannot carry onwith her life. Dickens is emphasizing that his character has losteverything. She was attractive, bright but now has lost her lifeshine, radiance and therefore is now dull and old. The readers seethat Ms. Havisham is a lost soul and cannot carry on with her life.Nothing would ever lift it up again helps support this. It is sayingthat whatsoever is done she would never recover and she will never be
Are Americans allergic to traveling overseas? I asked Poonam, an immigrant from Nepal, who states that such a notion is preposterous. Nepal has suffered lately due to a despotic ruler. The newspapers begin recently reported that the king has cut off Nepal from the rest of the world by closing airports and ending down communication. Poonams father owns a resort in Nepal, and his family has struggled to keep business open through these tough times.How do you explain that only 15% of Americans have passports to travel abroad? Is it because we are lazy? Poonam furthers that Americans are not lazy or allergic to traveling. He points out that Americans do not have the time to travel abroad. The strength of our economy is based on the swear outing class. He points out that most employees only receive one to ii weeks of vacation. In Nepal if he were to take a vacation, his employer would give him one to cardinal months off so that he can travel and enjoy himself. He explains that to travel to Nepal, it takes two days to get there and two takes to get back home (Baltimore). The weary traveler usually needs a day or two after each way to recover from any jet lag or from the pure exhaustion of balancing airplane and other time schedules. Poonam likewise points out, the vast land in United States allows Americans the opportunity to take mini-trips that can be very enriching. This is one of his favorite aspects of our country. Poonam who works 72 hour work weeks without overtime, will spend his only day off taking his son and wife to Washington D.C. or Philadelphia. We both agree that this point is overlooked. Traveling abroad is reserved for those who do not have to work the independently wealthy. Poonam does not believe that apathy prevents us from travel, but rather our drive to succeed in our careers. I posed the question as to whether or not we work too much? He reminds me of the French government who require mandatory vacations and 35 hours work weeks. I cou nter with a recent news article that reported a decline in the French economy. The French government is thought of reversing the 35 hour work week law.I am definitely very interested in traveling. I have started taking French lessons so that I can travel abroad.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Battle of Ap Bac final draftIn the early times of the Vietnam War at that place were twain main sides, the Viet Cong who were rebels and opposed the South Vietnamese government, and the ARVN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam) which was on the side of the South Vietnamese government. This was one the very first times these two opposing forces had met in dispute. On January 2, 1963 the battle of Ap Bac proved to be much more than a normal battle. Many things happened there that were unclear and not resolved. on that point were many different stories of what happened those days at Ap Bac. This paper will portray what I believed happened at Ap Bac given the evidence at hand. The two discovers that I usher had many holes and missing parts that I found to be not credible. Account two clearly states that ARVN had forces of over three thousand troops for the most part from the Seventh Infantry Division, and the Viet Cong with only two hundred forty soldiers with the help of fifty gue rrillas. Later on in reputation two it says that after the battle the ARVN lost sixty one troops with a hundred or more injured, and the Viet Cong only an estimated twelve. Right off the start this seems completely unrealistic. And here is wherefore the ARVN had nearly ten to one odds with exceptionally superior fire power consisting of helicopters, artillery, and armed vehicles and only manage to kill twelve enemy soldiers. likewise what I have learned from the past is that the government often does not give an exact number of people that died suggesting that the numbers came from another source which I found to be not credible. In account two it says ARVN losses were heavy (sixty-one killed and about one hundred wounded. The numbers in account two appear to be much too exact. Account two is very much statistical and everything is based on or around statistics which to me looks unbelievable. The second account is seen as a major loss and the ARVN were unable to overrun the out n umbered Viet Cong. It seems to me to be a story that was built up very high and had oodles of power like a tale of a heroic infantry, and then shot down and demolished into nothing but talk.On the contrary account one seems to be much more realistic and truthful.
Battle of Ap Bac final draftIn the early times of the Vietnam War thither were cardinal main sides, the Viet Cong who were rebels and opposed the South Vietnamese government, and the ARVN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam) which was on the side of the South Vietnamese government. This was one the very first times these twain opposing forces had met in combat. On January 2, 1963 the battle of Ap Bac proved to be much more than a normal battle. Many things happened there that were unclear and not resolved. on that point were many different stories of what happened those days at Ap Bac. This paper will portray what I believed happened at Ap Bac given the evidence at hand. The two consider statements that I postulate had many holes and missing parts that I found to be not credible. Account two clearly states that ARVN had forces of over three thousand troops broadly from the Seventh Infantry Division, and the Viet Cong with only two hundred forty soldiers with the help of fifty g uerrillas. Later on in account two it says that after the battle the ARVN lost sixty one troops with a hundred or more injured, and the Viet Cong only an estimated twelve. Right off the start this seems completely unrealistic. And here is why the ARVN had nearly ten to one odds with exceptionally superior fire power consisting of helicopters, artillery, and armed vehicles and only manage to kill twelve enemy soldiers. besides what I have learned from the past is that the government often does not give an exact number of people that died suggesting that the numbers came from another source which I found to be not credible. In account two it says ARVN losses were heavy (sixty-one killed and about one hundred wounded. The numbers in account two appear to be much too exact. Account two is very much statistical and everything is based on or around statistics which to me looks unbelievable. The second account is seen as a major loss and the ARVN were unable to overrun the out numbered Vi et Cong. It seems to me to be a story that was built up very high and had split of power like a tale of a heroic infantry, and then shot down and demolished into nothing but talk.On the contrary account one seems to be much more realistic and truthful.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Article Summary AEPS Reading, Writing & Spoken Communication Language Centre University of Helsinki 20. 03. 2013 The article represents a part of a research almost English multi-word expressions and their translation equivalents in other languages. The research was important for different tasks such as language learning, translation, automatic multilingual lexicon etc. The article is a short review of English phrasal verbs and their translations to Russian and Finnish. English phrasal verbs are multi-word expressions consisting of a verb and an adverbial particle with a spatial or locative role meaning.The meaning of this combination doesnt depend on the individual meanings of its parts. The most frequent phrasal verb pattern is any form of lexical verb plus prepositional adverb/particle, and usually in that respect can be a noun phrase, any pronoun or any adverb embedded between the verb and the adverb/particle. N all Russian nor Finnish has phrasal verbs. English-Russian If there is an English phrasal verb with an adverb or particle, which on its own is a function word like in, on, up etc. , it is usually translated into Russian as verb with prefix, e. g. pass off down , find out .If a part of an English phrasal verb may act as a content word such as forward, behind, apart, together etc. , the Russian translation is often a verb + adverb combination, e. g. bring together , leave behind . However, some verbs of this group can be as well as expressed in Russian by prefixation, e. g. take apart . In addition, if an English phrasal verb is highly idiomatic, the Russian translation will be either idiomatic expression or a lengthy explanation. English-Finnish Many English phrasal verbs can be translated as single Finnish verbs, e. g. ake up herata, herattaa dissemble ahead edeta. There are to a fault phrases and idiomatic combinations in Finnish, which can be used as translations of English phrasal verbs, e. g. find out saada selville, switchi ng off kytkea pois paalta. Sometimes we can use both techniques hide away piilottaa, panna piiloon, often the single-word expression is more formal. Often Finnish equivalent expressions and English phrasal verbs are morpho-syntactically close to each other, it is a result of influence from Swedish or other languages, e. g. write down kirjoittaa ylos. There can be also more native Finnish expression like kirjoittaa muistiin.There are also fixed combinations with object in Finnish to express English phrasal verbs, e. g. bandageup sitoa kengannauhat. Conclusion English phrasal verbs usually have a single-word translation equivalents in Russian and Finnish. The balance between single-word and multi-word expressions changes across languages. Reference Mudraya, O. and Piao, S. and Lofberg, L. and Rayson, P. and Archer, D. (2005) English-Russian-Finnish cross-language par of phrasal verb translation equivalents. In Phraseology 2005, 2005-10-132005-10-15, Lovain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
William H infrat (Kevin Kline) is a passionate Classics professor yearning ab step up the start of the naturalize year. His descriptor turns out to be a strict yet inspiring lesson for the new students arriving at St. Benedicts Academy. They include laid- plump for Louis Masoudi (Jesse Eisenberg), the introverted Martin Blythe (Paul Dano), and the studious Deepak Mehta (Rishi Mehta), all highly intelligent. Hundert inspires his students to study hard in order to call on ace of the three contestants for The Emperors Club and be crowned Mr.Julius Caesar, a opposition which puts the top three students of his class in a contest where they will be asked points regarding the Classics. When the headmaster (Edward Hermann) explains the contest to the students, he mentions that Martins father was erstwhile a Mr. Julius Caesar. Hundert quickly gains the respect of his class and the civilize year gets off to an orderly start. However, Hunderts tightly controlled world is shaken when a new student, Sedgewick Bell (Emile Hirsch), walks into his classroom. Bell is the cocky son of a senior U.S. Senator who possesses no(prenominal) of Hunderts principles. A fierce battle of wills begins between Hundert and Bell. Bells rebellious nature quickly makes him the interest of the class, as he not only is willing to talk back against Hundert, he to a fault freely shares pornographic material and is willing to play hooky and travel off-limits to a nearby prep school for girls. scorn Blythes constant pleas not to break the rules, Masoudi and even studious Mehta find themselves enjoying their rebellious tendencies with Bell.Hundert humiliates Bell when he asks the class to list, in chronological order, all the Roman emperors. The some other students comply in perfect unison, effectively embarrassing Bell, who has not studied the course material. Hundert also makes a trip to Washington D. C. to meet with Senator Bell from tungsten Virginia. Bells father is clearly unintere sted in his sons character development while at St. Benedicts, instead telling Hundert just to teach Bell lessons so he can graduate, giving Hundert some insight into the unfledgeder Bells upbringing.Hundert returns to St. Benedicts, where in a phone call, Senator Bell chews out Sedgewick for wasting his epoch in having to see Hundert and his specie on the tuition. (But he does not yell at his son for being a slacker. ) After seeing a chastised Sedgewick, Hundert tries to develop a closer student-teacher affinity and become a mentor to Bell in order to help change him into a better man. Bell starts studying, proving to be a bright student, and his grades rectify enormously. Bell finishes in the top three in Hunderts competition that precedes the Mr.Julius Ceasar contest, along with classmates Masoudi and Mehta. Bell had actually earned fourth place until Hundert privately decided to house his grade on the final essay after reviewing it again, thus moving him above Blythe, the third place winner, whose father before him had been an Mr. Julius Ceasar winner, putting him under more than pressure to live up to his fathers reputation. Hundert is caught between celebrating Bells newfound success and feeling guilty when he sees a despondent Blythe sitting all by himself under a tree.The entire school watches the competition as the three contestants are quizzed by Hundert. After many questions, the confident Masoudi is the first to make a misapprehension and he is thus eliminated. Hundert becomes increasingly suspicious of Bell raising his toga to his head to think. When Hundert acknowledges a recess to confer with the headmaster he is urged to give Bell a pass, as Senator Bell is in attendance. But he then asks Bell a question not in the books, Who was Hamilcar Barca? , knowing full well that the dissolve would not be on any materials used to cheat (it was not in the curriculum) but knowing that Mehta would be adequate to answer it because earlier in the y ear, Hundert had seen him reading material about Barca in his spare time. Bell is stumped and Mehta is crowned Mister Julius Caesar. Afterwards, Bell admits to Hundert having cheated by placing crib notes on the inside of his toga sleeve. Bell could not take the pressure of losing, and like his father, tried everything he could to guarantee a win. Although Hundert does not publicize this, the trust he once had with Bell is broken.Students move up to higher(prenominal) grades before their graduation from St. Benedicts Academy, and Bell shown reverting to his lax behavior and loss of interest in academia. In the year 1976, Bell is shown barely squeaking by in his classes, gaining acceptance to Yale University only on account of being Senator Bells son. Hundert regrets not being able to influence Bell more. Twenty-five years later, Hundert is denied his call for to become headmaster of the school by the board, who feel he lacks the ability to drum up financial boons for the school. H undert immediately resigns.Later he receives an invitation for a class reunion and a chance to meet up with his students at an event (surprisingly) staged by a full-grown Bell (Joel Gretsch), who is now extremely rich and successful. formerly reunited with his students, he is impressed that every one of his students from that fateful class had done well since their days at St. Bendicts and all had successful careers in business, with Deepak Mehta now a professor himself. It is also revealed that Sedgewick Bell agreed to donate an additional 25,000 square foot addition to the St.Benedict library under the condition that a Mr. Julius Caesar rematch is held with alumni Masoudi and Mehta, Hundert presiding. This donation would be ironic, seeing that Hundert was denied becoming headmaster collectible to lack of fundraising abilities (so the board had deemed) and yet he would be the linchpin responsible for providing the largest donation to the school to date. in advance the match Bel l talks to Hundert about how his influence had really changed his life and he hopes that he would be able to regain his dignity in the rematch.An enthusiastic Hundert agrees to host once again. And so the Emperors Club contest is again played, albeit the crowd being Bells schoolfriends and their respective wives and children, and the three contestants placid wearing togas, but with tuxedos. Masoudi answers the first question wrong, then tries for fun to guess the right answer in spite, humoring the crowd with fake Roman names such as Gassius Flatulus. Again, the main competition is between Mehta (Rahul Khanna) and Bell as both still remember (or kept up diligent study of) their lessons from Hunderts class.Sadly, despite Hunderts belief that Bell has changed, he is able to perceive that Bell is cheating, this time through a hired graduate student feeding him answers through a clandestine earpiece. Hundert poses another unofficial question, this one regarding the plaque over his doo r, asking Who was Shutruk-Nakhunte? Despite supportive shouts from his classmates that this one is easy and they all know this one, Bell again does not know the answer due to him being a late arrival to Saint Benedicts and not being told about the leader at Mr.Hunderts first class (or ever taking the time to look around the classroom to study the plaque). Furthermore, any information about Shutruk-Nakhunte cannot be found in any textbook, which had been a point Hundert had made in his class way back when, explaining that without contribution to society, one is insignificant. Therefore, the hired grad student cannot feed Bell the correct answer, because he cant find it. Mehta is crowned Mr. Julius Caesar once again. After the competition ends and Bell congratulates Mehta for defending his title, Bell announces that he will be running for a seat in the U.S. Senate just like his father, stressing taxpayer financial support of education. Hundert finally sees that Bell only used the eve nt to drum up support for his campaign and to get contributions from his old classmates. Hundert, as well as Blythe, found on a look of humorous utter shock on his face, can scarcely believe it. Hundert and Bell run into each other in the bathroom, where Hundert confronts Bell about his immorality. Bell coldly goes on to tell Hundert that Hundert has no accomplishments in life, whereas he will become a nationally famous senator no matter what the cost.Bell also says it does not matter that he cheated, as life is full of cheaters. Just then, Bells son, who had admired his father up to this point for his sound character, comes out of a stall with a pained expression on his face, and Bell is left to face his son and rationalize his Machiavellian ways. Hundert believes that Bell will become just like his father was too wrapped up in his political life to devote attention to his family and properly raise his son. Hundert, realizing again that he has failed Bell, now recognizes the impor tance of letting Blythe know that he had given away Blythes seat in the original Mr.Julius Caesar contest. He confesses his action from a quarter degree Celsius ago to Blythe, who attempts to be mature about this revelation but then excuses himself, his mannerisms strongly suggesting he did not appreciate having old wounds reopened. Hundert, feeling he has failed cardinal students, contemplates his legacy as a teacher. Hundert wakes up the next morning and goes to the dining room expecting one last breakfast with his pupils. Instead, he finds an empty room and is told that they bedevil all left already.Hundert dejectedly returns to his room, only to discover that the men had thrown him a surprise party. All his students are at the party, except Bell, who is seen talking with reporters, stemma his political campaign. Nonetheless, the meeting is a joyous event as Hundert and his students talk about how much he has influenced them and how they are grateful that he was their teacher . Mehta gives Hundert a natural endowment from one teacher to another, which is an inscribed plaque quoting the value of mentoring.Hundert finally comes to the realization that while he failed to turn Bell into a better man, he still has helped make many of his pupils into better men, and he realizes that his value is not based upon one failure or one success. He accepts the offer that he is forever welcome for reinstatement at Saint Benedicts, going back to his old job as a teacher. Hundert thus returns to St. Benedicts Academy and again teaches Classics to a new class (which is now coeducational). It is also revealed that one of his students is Blythes son, who is proud that his father was once Hunderts student.Hundert then asks Blythes son to read the plaque over his door, just as young Blythe did at the beginning of the film. Hundert then looks out the window to see Martin Blythe proudly waving to him, and an expression that Hundert has found peace with his past troubles and g ladness that he has been truthful with Blythe. Its also noticed that young Blythe reads the plaque without stumbling over the difficult words, while his father as a young boy had had trouble reading it, showing that young Blythes father had taught his son what Hundert had taught him. Reference http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/The_Emperors_Club
Saturday, May 25, 2019
How do cultural differences affect meaning and understanding? In nowadayss business environment, the mechanics of global business seem to be working on a surface level. We rump make quick gold transactions by phone or by computer. Consumers can buoy purchase products from all different countries in one transaction. Although trade barriers are still a major topic, they are s broken inly decreasing. As we sick below the surface, we will see that Global business is still in major jeopardy because of a newly emerging challenge Cultural differences. civilisation is the pattern of beliefs or expectations that inevitably shape the behaviours of individuals and teams within organisations. It is concerned with the basic assumptions, values, attitudes, food and feeding habits, limit and appearance, relationships, a sense of self and space and norms shaped by members of an organisation or country. These elements of culture are usually taken for granted and guide others perceptions, though ts and actions. For example, the Culture at McDonalds fast food chain emphasises efficiency, speed and consistency.It orients employees to company goals and charters and suggests the necessary behaviours for success. Many educated, business people may say But we are getting closer and closer to each other, we dont have any cultural problems. Yes, it is possible to transcend cultural differences however statements like this can be misleading to many people. (Funakawa, p18) Geert Hofstede, a successful cross-cultural management researcher, observes five different dimensions within a culture baron/Distancing This refers to the degree of diversity that exists and is accepted among people with and without power. high-pitched Power distancing cultures conclude that familiarity accepts an unequal distribution of power and people understand their place in the system. Low Power Distancing means that power is shared and well dispersed. It also means that society members view themselves as equals. Application According to Hofstedes model, in a high gear Power distancing country like Malaysia, you would probably send reports only to top management and have closed door meetings where only a select few, compelling leaders were in attendance.Individualism This refers to the strength of the ties people have to others within the community. A high Individualism society indicates a loose connection with people. In countries with a high Individualism society there is a lack of interpersonal connection and little sharing of responsibility, beyond family and perhaps a few close friends. A society with a low Individualism would have strong group cohesion, and there would be a large amount of inscription and respect for members of the group. The group itself is also larger and people take more responsibility for each others well being.Masculinity This refers to how much a society sticks with, and values, traditional male and female roles. High Masculinity societies are foun d in countries where men are expected to be tough, to be the provider, to be assertive and to be strong. If women work outside the home, they have separate professions from men. Low Masculinity societies do not reverse the gender roles. In a low Masculinity society, the roles are simply blurred. You see women and men working together equally across many professions.Men are allowed to be sensitive and women can work hard for professional success. Uncertainty/Avoidance Index This relates to the degree of anxiety society members feel when in uncertain or unknown situations. High Uncertainty societies try to avoid ambiguous situations whenever possible. They are governed by rules and order and they seek a collective truth. Low Uncertainty societies indicate the society enjoys novel events and values differences. There are very few rules and people are encouraged to discover their own truth.Geert also observes that when people write closely national cultures in modern society becoming more and more similar, the evidence cited is usually taken from the level of practices people dress the alike(p), use the same fashionable words in context, buy the same products and brands, they participate in global sports etc. These manifestations of culture are sometimes mistaken for all there is the deeper, underlying values is often overlooked. (Funakawa p33) The value for cross cultural communication cannot be overemphasised. It is what enables any mission statement, vision or strategy, and affects meaning and understanding on every level.
Friday, May 24, 2019
When focusing on racial identity, the use of bearings as signifiers of group membership is not always clear cut. This relationship between appearances and exclusive identity choice becomes even more complex when we examine bi-racial identity. Research on bi-racial identity has a good deal cited the reactions of whites to bi-racial man-to-mans, but with Joseph E. Holloways novel Neither murky Nor snow-covered the politics of shin color among African Americans atomic number 18 look at. His novel is an historical account of the Hadnot family whose migration from Gloucester England in 1585 to New Orleans describes a family that were never slaves, but owners of slaves. They never thought of themselves as whites or as blacks, whizz parent that was white and oneness black to create a whole sensitive identity.It is clear that there is only speculation as to the relationship between appearance and racial identity among bi-racial individuals. There has been little to no theoretical victimisation on this relationship. One important distinction is that color is both a personal and a social characteristic. That is one who perceives their skin color and one that interprets their appearance through the eyes of others within any given interactional sphere.Such as the Hadnot family, they interpreted their sense of belonging within their family structure. It would be difficult for a person to choose an exclusively Black or exclusively White identity if their physical appearances do not match their chosen identity. In the suppress literature on the appearance identity link is sparse and seriously underdeveloped.There is a love and hate relationship with this group on the one drop rule with skin color. The argument is that a three leveled society existed in the South with the following hierarchy from highest to lowest status. White, Mulattos, and Blacks, mixed race individuals often served as a buffer group between Whites and Blacks through which cross color interacti ons and business transactions could happen.This situation caused a preferential treatment of Mulattos by Whites and a generational advantage for Mulattos. Perhaps this was true for the Hadnot family in England but there were problems they had to face in New Orleans. The foundation for a social and heathen system of color classisms within Black America was laid. The author provided strong evidence that those members of the community with the lightest skin color and the most Caucasian looking features birth been allowed the greatest freedoms and achieved at higher rates.There is argument that goes further to display the ways that darker-skinned members of the Black community discriminate against mixed-race individuals in the workplace, how patterns of dating with the community are tangled up with phenotype, how networks are constructed or dismantled on the basis of color classism and how culturally, Blacks use unique cultural coding, such as hair or first names, to distinguish betwe en those who are black and those who are not.This is so because a bi-racial individuals understanding of their own appearance seems to be grow in others perceptions and assumptions of appearance and its link with identity.Appearance is distinctly more social than phenotypes because it is created by the bi-racial individuals understanding of their skin color as conditioned through the judgments of others in interactions. So we expect that it is appearance, not skin color, which will influence the racial identification of bi-racial, and that skin color works through ones appearance to affect identity. Mutual identification is critical to both identity construction and maintenance. If an individual exists within a social context where bi-racial has a meaningful existence, then they may cultivate a border identity.If this cultural category does not exist and one becomes accustomed to and adept at faulting from Black to White they will cultivate a protean identity, I think was evident in the novel Neither Black Nor White. If their appearance is White then members may develop a transcendent identity, but only if their social context does not demand categorization. If none of these options are available to an individual then the existing cultural norms dictate the racial identity above and beyond their appearance.Reading the novel and researching the meaning of the novel, colorism. I love history and this historical novel put into perspective an issue I really had never thought of. It gave the reader a good sense of what it was like being in limbo with your identity. I was impressed with the research that went into writing this historical novel and with the detail to genealogy. I recommend this book for all undergraduates to help understand racial discrimination and all of its hidden secrets.ReferenceDavis, F.J. (1991) Who is Black? One Nations Definition. University Park, P.A. Pennsylvania State University Press.Holloway, J.E. (2006) Neither Black Nor White. C. A. New World African Press.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Different Styles of Learning By Jason D. Himel COLL100 DO41 WIN 13 American Military University Maureen Horowitz As individuals I found we every learn in many different ways. You have from plenty learning on-line succession other attends a class room environment. Some people are hands on scholarly persons while others can read an assignment and retain the information very well. When I first started this exercise I panorama to myself how I learn the material I am trying to obtain. After taking all four of the surveys and completing the exercises I found it very raise the breakdown of my learner abilities.In all the way of lifes and ways of learning I found that I am a visual learner. As a visual learner I choose hands on training, taking lots of notes, and visual seeing the big picture and then breaking down the picture while trying to understand how it all comes together. But being a visual learner doesnt really stop here. I decided to go kick upstairs into detail to see what a visual learner means to me. I have decided to seek a college degree to tog out myself for the future and prepare myself for the new chapter in life. I only have about two years remaining in the military and a few courses left to blast my bachelor degree.My supervisor a few weeks ago sat down with me really broke it down for me and helps me understand duration management and finding time to finish my degree. She pretty much gave me a more time so I can finish my education. A challenge I am uncoerced to accept. Despite me working full time and many long hours I decided to attend on-line classes. Considering surveys taken on-line courses is one of my weaknesses since how I prefer eyes on and hands on training but through the proper motivation and dedication I can overcome my weakness and withstand it my strength. This I hope I am able to overcome and do extremely well.As I was doing the exercises I found two of which most interesting and however I totally agree was from the l earning styles and strategies website and the learning style preference website. My learning style is sequential and global learner and my style of preference was a kinesthetic learner. According to Felder & Soloman, a sequential learner tends to gain understanding in linear steps, with each step following logically from the previous one. globular learners tend to learn in large jumps, absorbing material almost randomly without seeing connections, and then suddenly getting it.Retrieved from http//www4. ncsu. edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/ human beings/ILSdir/styles. htm. In The Center for New Discoveries in Learning, a kinesthetic learner we prefer to be a hands-on learner and most likely whap to move around frequently, like athletics, and to build things with your hands. Be grateful for your talents and also, it is important to know that most company and school environments cater to people whose highest learning style preference is visual. Retrieved from http//www. howtolearn. com/quiz-results? id=34681D5B-149A-D43E-1EF8-212F30D45B44&source=HTL. In conclusion, now I have a better understanding on my particular learning styles and habits I believe in can improve on areas that I may be weak at by taking it upon myself by learning other styles individuals have mastered. This leave behind help me more effectively interact, while also increasing my learning potential because I can learn from other individuals. Knowledge truly is power, and the more I acquire, and the more I can learn from myself and other people, the better off I will be.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Private Schools VS. Public Schools Parents often wonder how to start off their childrens education. Depending on ones theology or beliefs a private or public school is a choose most parents face. Of course, each school offers its own pros and cons the choice is simple. Public schools offer the best well rounding of a student. While being enrolled in a public school, students are faced with trustworthy outside world problems, are with a different blend of students each year, and are also introduced to the latest technology faster.While, a public school the currency is offered to them by the state easier then having donations like a private school. Ones child pass on most likely be with the same students throughout their educational years. Classes arent as big and varied like classes at public schools. While in a public school, children view the wide spread cultures and human beings that lay down up todays American society. Public schools have a wider variety of classes, which giv e students an opportunity to choose the classes the want.These classes allow students to pursue a race from the knowledge they have obtained. For example, one might take a business class, which could lead to a career in the business industry. On the other hand, in Private schools they only provide the necessary classes required by the state. In some mean(a) private schools, Home Economics and Shop classes Brady 2 arent even offered. Unlike Public schools these classes have been offered since fifth or sixth grade and up. The uniforms in private schools ones child will be wearing would not allow the child to show character in his self.Uniforms may make life easier in the long run, but think of how many different shipway in style people express themselves. Theres skater, prep, sporty, gothic, hippie, or whatever is convertible. In public schools, ones child has many different ways to garment in or dress how they feel is convertible to them. The sports in private schools arent that excelled as ones in public schools. Like in private intermediate schools there are not a variety of sports. Public schools offer sports as young as their primary schools.Sports in Public schools seem to be widely known and are more funded. The money that Public schools produce go towards uniforms, equipment, and top of the line coachs. Public schools show to the community that they will educate and well round you child better then Private schools. Private schools will limit your childrens ability to grow. Although your child will receive religion in school as another subject, is it really worth it to you to have your child be deprived of the opportunity that will lead them to be a better person?
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
There are some types of conditioning that are employed in centerfield schools and high school settings. Take for example when the t all(prenominal)ers enter the classroom, students are conditioned to react in certain ways. Thus, this depends on what they are used to and how teachers go forth slightness such type of behaviors. The initial re deed of the students is referred to as the baseline behavior (capital of Hawaii Zoo Organization, 2009). Before any type of conditioning is applied, this behavior should be sight and recorded.In a classical conditioning, there is a large dependence on the association of a stimulus to a response and has involuntary reactions (Comparison of unadulterated and Operant Conditioning, 2009). In a classroom setting, classical conditioning can also be applied. Say, students love their music class and that they love to sing. Thus, before each music class, the teacher would play a song. Thus, when the students hear the music, they may start to sing or h um to the tune of the music. This increases their awareness that music class will be next.Then, shaping is applied where a series of actions are equated to a series of reactions. This defines the difference between the baseline and terminal behavior. For an operant conditioning, the most remarkable feature is the reinforcement and that the reactions are voluntary (Comparison of Classical and Operant Conditioning, 2009). Say when one teacher enters the classroom, the students to hold up and greet by applause. This may be construed by the teacher as the good behavior and, thus, the teacher may give a reward for each student when the students stand and love.Say, the reward is a candy bar, which now serves as the positive reinforcement. Consequently, without the stand and applaud response, the candy bar is withheld and students are forced to stand, thus a negative reinforcement. When this is done in an every stand and applaud reaction response basis, thus, continuous reinforcement is applied. Within the shaping, reinforcements may vary. The reinforcement may be done in random, meaning candy bar is not given every time the stand and applaud reaction is done by student, which is called variable reinforcement.If in case the teacher gives more candy bars for a louder applause, then this is now referred to as the selective reinforcement with the aim of increasing performance. Another schedule of reinforcement is the gift wherein the students may receive more candy bars than the usual as a surprise. The terminal behavior is the behavior after the shaping is applied. In this example, the students action of standing and applauding every time the same teacher enters the classroom is the terminal behavior after the shaping including the reinforcement. prohibit reinforcement is if students fail to stand and applaud or if they just sit instead of stand, the candy bar is then withheld, thus, the students will go back to the stand and applaud response for the candy bar. Ne gative reinforcement then pushes that the students do something for their benefit. Punishment, on the other hand, is when the students stand and applaud and then they are all sent to the principals office, which weakens the enthusiasm for stand and applause behavior.Then, if the candy bar is removed after the stand and applaud reaction, thus, the reaction is no longer encouraged and this is then called the extinction. Reward is a very powerful tool for students and the proper use of it should be understood before it is utilized by the members of the academe. In the same manner, rewards can make or break students habits and behavior. This could be dangerous since there is a tendency of students lacking the initiative to work without the reward. This may keep students from doing their best since there is no patent gain for go against performance in school.On the other hand, this may also be very helpful in stirring movements for students towards positive actions and better performan ce. This may be an extra boost on their determination to achieve more in their activities.ReferenceComparison of Classical and Operant Conditioning. (2009). The McGraw-Hill Companies. Retrieved March 26, 2009 from http//www. dushkin. com/connectext/psy/ch06/compare. mhtml Honolulu Zoo Organization. (2009). Operant Conditioning Terms. Retrieved March 26, 2009 from http//www. honoluluzoo. org/enrichment_operant_cond_terms. htm
Monday, May 20, 2019
FILTRATION Filtration may be de comelyd as a help of separation of substantialitys from a fluid by passing the same through and through a permeable forte that retains the inviolables, alone al secondarys the fluid to pass through. The suspension to be perked is known as slurry. The holey metier utilize to retain the solids is known as deform speciality. The accumulated solids on the dawn be referred to as interpenet lay come out of the closet stripe, firearm the give suave passing through the slobber is filt browse. When solids ar present in a actually low concentration i. e. , not exceeding 1. 0% w/v, the process of its separation from gasness is c onlyed clarification.Process of filtration The filtration operation is shown below in the figure * The sharpens of the perk speciality be tinyer than the size of the particles to be sepa ordaind. * Filter medium (for eg perk up paper or muslin stuff) is determined on a support (a sieve). * When slurry (feed) is passed over the class medium, the fluid flows through the diff utilisation medium by virtue of a gouge divers(prenominal)ial across the interpenetrate. * Gravity is acting on the lucid column. at that placefore, solids ar trapped on the surface of the filter medium paradigm 1 filtration Once the preliminary layer of particles is deposited, further filtration is brought nigh wherein the filter medium serves only(prenominal) as a support. * The filter will work efficiently only aft(prenominal) an initial deposit. * After a particular dismantle of time, the defense offered by the filter cake is high that virtually filtration is stopped. For this reason, a positive pressure is employ on the filter cake (upstream) or negative pressure (suction) is applied below the filter medium (downstream). Factors affecting the rate of filtrationThe rate of filtration which depends on various factors good deal be written as Rate of filtration = Area of filter X wildness p er social unit bea difference Viscosity X fortress of cake and filter The rate of filtration depends on the following factors 1. pressure level * The rate of filtration of runny is directly proportional to the pressure difference between the filter medium and filter cake. * gum olibanum, the rate of filtration stinkpot be increased by applying pressure on the unstable existence filtered or by decreasing the pressure beneath the filter. 2. Viscosity * The rate of filtration is inversely proportional to the viscosity of the runniness on a lower floorgoing filtration. Liquids which are precise viscous get filtered slowly in comparison to liquids with low viscosity. * diminution of viscosity of a liquid by raising the temperature is frequently do in rank to race filtration. eg syrups are more quickly filtered when gamy and cold. 3. Surface area of filter media * The rate of filtration is directly proportional to the surface area of filter media. * Pleating the filter paper or using a fluted displace increases the effective surface area of filter paper for filtration. Filter press alike works on the same principle. 4. Temperature of liquid to be filtered Temperature plays an grievous role in the rate of filtration. * Viscosity is reduced by a rise in temperature and the filtration of viscous oils, syrups etc is often accelerated by filtering them while they are dummy up hot. 5. Particle size * The rate of filtration is directly proportional to the particle size of the solid to be aloof. * It is easier to filter a liquid having coarse particles than that having finely divided particles beca work coarse filtering medium can be use to filter liquid having coarse and hence it increases the rate of filtration. Therefore before filtration, some method should be adopted to agglomerate the finely divided particles into coarse particles or to increase the particle size by precipitation. 6. Pore size of filter media * The rate of filtration is directl y proportional to the pore size of the filter media. * The liquid having coarse particles requires a coarse filtering media to remove them. So, the rate of filtration is increased when a coarse filter medium is apply for filtration. 7. Thickness of cake * The rate of filtration is inversely proportional to the thickness of the filter cake organize during the process of filtration. As the filtration process proceeds, the solid particles start depositing on the filter medium, and thus, it increases the thickness of the cake and decreases the rate of filtration. 8. Nature of the solid material * The rate of filtration is directly proportional to the porousness of the filter cake. * The porosity of the filter cake depends on the nature of the solid particles to be removed from the liquid. * Filter aids are sometimes added to the filtering liquid to make a porous cake Theories of filtrationThe flow of a liquid thorough a filter follows the basic rules that govern the flow of any liqui d through the medium offering resistance. The rate of flow may be expressed as Driving crowd Rate = ( equality 1) Resistance The rate of filtration may be expressed as volume (lit) per unit time (dv/dt). The driving force is the pressure differential between the upstream and downstream of the filter. The resistance is not aeonian.It increases with an increase in the deposition of solids on the filter medium. Therefore filtration is not a steady state. The rate of flow will be sterling(prenominal) at the beginning of the filtration process, since the resistance is minimum. Once the filter cake is organize, its surface acts as filter medium and solids continuously deposit adding to the thickness of the cake. The resistance to flow is related to several factors as mentioned below. Length of capillaries Resistance to movement = Poiseuilles EquationPoiseuilles considered that filtration is similar to the stream line flow of a liquid under pressure through capillaries. Poiseuille s equation is ? pr4 V = 8L? Where, V= rate of flow, i. e. , volume of liquid flowing in unit time, m3/s(1/s) p = pressure difference across the filter, pa r = wheel spoke of the capillary in the filter bed, m L = thickness of the filter cake (capillary length), m = viscosity of permeate, pa s If the cake is composed of a bulky mass of particles and the liquid flows through the interstices (correspond to a multiplicity of capillary tubes), whence the flow of liquids through these may be expressed by poiseulles equation. Darcys Equation Poiseuilles law assumes that the capillaries found in the filter are highly secondment and nonuniform. Therefore, if the length of a capillary is taken as the thickness of the bed, correction factor for radius is applied so that the rate equation is closely approximated and simplified.The factor influencing the rate of filtration has been incorporated into an equation by Darcy, which is KA P V = ? L Where, K = permeability coefficient of the cake , m2 A = surface area of the porous bed (filter medium), m2 p = pressure difference across the filter, pa L = thickness of the filter cake (capillary length), m ? = viscosity of filtrate, pa sThe term K depends on the characteristics of the cake, such as porosity, surface area and compressibility. permeableness may be defined quantitatively as the flow rate of a liquid of unit viscosity across a unit area of cake having unit thickness under a pressure gradient of unity. This model relates not only to filter beds or cakes but also applies to different(a) types of knowledge filter. Equipment is valid for liquids flowing through sand, icing beads and various porous media. Darcys equation is further modified by including characteristics of K by Kozeny-Carman. Kozeny-Carman EquationPoiseuilles equation is do applicable to porous bed, based on a capillary type structure by including additional parameters. Thus the resultant equation, which is widely apply for filtration is Konzeny- Carman equation. A p ? 3 ?S2 KL (1- ? )2 V = - Where, ? = porosity of the cake (bed) S = unique(predicate) surface area of the particles comprising the cake, m2/m3 K = Konzeny constant p = pressure difference across the filter, pa L = thickness of the filter cake (capillary length), m ? = viscosity of filtrate, pa sThe Konzeny constant is commonly taken as 5. The effect of compressibility of the cake on flow rate can be appreciated from equation (1), since the flow rate is proportional to ? 3/ (1- ? )2. A 10 percent castrate in porosity can produce almost 3-fold alternate inn V. Limitations of Kozeny Carman equation Kozeny Carman equation does not take in to account of the fact that the depth of the gamey bed is littleer than the actual bridle-path traversed by the fluid. The actual path is not straight throughout the bed, but it is sinuous or copious Mechanisms of filtrationThe mechanism whereby particles are retained by a filter is significant only in the initial stages of filtration. Some of the mechanisms are Straining Similar to sieving i. e. , the particles of larger size cannot pass through the smaller pore size of the filter medium. Impingement Solids having momentum move along the path of contour flow and rent (impinge) the filter medium. Thus, the solids are retained on the filter medium. Entanglement Particles become entwined (entangled) in the mass of fibres (of cloth with a fine hairy surface or porous felt) due to smaller size of particles than the pore size.Thus the solids are retained on the filter medium. Attractive forces Solids are retained on the filter medium as a result of attractive forces between particles and filter medium, as in carapace of electrostatic precipitation. FILTER MEDIA AND FILTER AIDS Filter media The filter medium act as a mechanical support for the filter cake and is also responsible for the collection of solids. Filter medium should pick up the following characteristics 1. It should get under ones skin sufficient mechanical strength. 2. It must be inert it should not show chemic or physical inter execute. 3.It should not absorb the dissolved material. 4. It should allow the maximum passage of liquid, while retaining the solids. It nub that it must offer low resistance to flow. The magnitude of the resistance of the filter medium will change due to the layers of solids deposited earlier, which may block the pores or may form bridges over the entrances of the channels. Therefore, the pressure should be kept low at the beginning to avoid the plugging of the pores. The usual procedure is to filter at constant rate by increasing the pressure as necessary. When normal working pressure is reached, it is maintained.On go on filtration, the thickness of the cake further builds up and hence the rate of filtration decreases. When the rate is uneconomical, filtration is stopped. The filter cake is removed and filtration is restarted. Materials The following materials are used as filter me dia 1. Woven materials such as felt or cloth * Woven material is made of wool, cotton, silk, glass, metal or synthetic fibres (rayon, nylon etc. ) * Synthetic fibres have great chemical resistance than wool or cotton, which are affected by alkali and sharp respectively. * The choice of the fibre depends on the chemical reactivity with the slurry. . Perforated sheet metal * For eg untarnished firebrand dentures have pores which act as channels as in case of meta filter (edge filter). 3. Bed of granular solid built up on a supporting medium * In some processes, a bed of graded solids may be formed to reduce the resistance to the flow. * Typical examples of granular solids are gravel, sand, asbestos, paper, pulp and keiselguhr. * The choice of solids depends on the size of the solids in the process. 4. Prefabricated porous solid unit * Porous solids prefabricated into a single unit are being increasingly used for its convenience and effectiveness. Sintered glass, sintered metal, e arthenware and porous plastics are some of the materials used for the fabrication. 5. Cartridge filter media * Cartridge units are economical and available in pore size of 100m to even less than 0. 2 m. * These can be used either as surface cartridges or depth type cartridges. a) Surface type cartridges * These are corrugated and resin treated paper. These are used in hydraulic lines. * Ceramic cartridges are advantageous in cleaning for reuse by back flushing or firing. * Porcelain filter candles are used for aseptic filtration. ) perspicaciousness type cartridges * These are made of cotton, asbestos or cellulose. * These are disposable items, since cleaning is not feasible. Filter aid Filter aid forms a surface deposit which screens out the solids and also prevents the plugging of the supporting filter medium. The important characteristics of the filter aids are 1. Chemically inert to the liquid being filtered and free from impurities. 2. down(p) special graveness, so tha t filter aids remain hang in liquid. 3. Porous rather than dense, so that precedent cake can be formed. 4. Recoverable JustificationThe object of the filter aid is to prevent the medium from becoming blocked and to form an open, porous cake, hence reducing the resistance to flow of the filtrate. a) Usually low resistance is offered by the filter medium itself, but as layers of solid built up the resistance will be increased. The cake may become impervious by blocking of the pore in the medium. Flow rate is inversely proportional to the resistance of the solid cake. b) Slimy or gelatinous material and highly compressible substances form impermeable cakes. The filter medium gets plugged and the flow of filtrate stops.Disadvantages * The filter aids remove the coloured substances by absorbing them. Sometimes active principles such as alkaloids are absorbed on the filter aid. * Rarely, filter aids are a source of contaminants such as soluble iron salts, which can provoke degradation o f sensitive ingredients. * Liquid retained in the pores of the filter cake is lost in the manufacturing process. Example of filter aids * Keiselguhr, Talc, Charcoal, Asbestos, Paper pulp, Bentonite, Fullers earth * Activated brown coal is used for removal of organic and inorganic impurities. Keiselguhr is a successful filter aid and as midget as 0. 1% can be added to the slurry. The rate of filtration is increased by 5 times or more, at the above concentration, though the slurry contains 20% solids. Handling of filter aids Filter aids are mostly used for clarification processes, i. e. , where solids are dish antennaarded. Different flow rates can be achieved depending on the grade of the aids. * Low flow rate (fine solids) fine grade filter aids mainly intend for clarity. * Fast flow rate (coarse solids) -coarse grade filter aids acceptable filtrate.The filter aid can be employed in either one or both ways. a) Firstly, a pre coat is formed over the medium. For this purpose, a su spension of the filter aid is filtered to give a coating up to 0. 5/m2. b) Secondly, a small proportion of filter aid (0. 1-0. 5% of total batch weight) is purposely added to the slurry. So the filter cake has a porous structure and filtration can be efficient. The filter aid of 1-2 separate per each part of contaminant is mixed in the feed tank. This slurry is re circulated through the filter until a clear filtrate is accomplished. Filtration then proceeds to completion.The body mix method minimises equipment requirement and cross contaminant potentials. Sterile Filtration Sterile filtration is carried out for removal of microorganisms from fluids. It is a cheap and satisfactory method for sterilizing heat-sensitive (thermolabile) materials. The method implies the use of tissue layer filters which do not impart any particulate matter, fibers, or chemical reaction to the filtrate unlike unglazed porcelain candles, asbestos pads and other filters. In addition, no pretreatment is re quired, cleaning is no problem and the filters can be autoclaved or gas sterilized after assembly in its holder.Even when sterility is not warranted but polishing (removal of particulate matter including live or dead bacterial cells in order to obtain high purity and clarity) is desired in products like oral or topical antibiotic preparations, membrane filters are the best choice. The following filters are used for bacterial filtration 1. Candle filter 2. Seitz filter 3. adjoin filter 4. Sintered glass filter 5. Membrane filter Candle filters Candle filters are made of unglazed porcelain and are available in various porosity grades, either cylindrical or in the shape of the flanged test tube.Normally the filtration is so carried out that the liquid flow is from is from outside inwards and greater filtration surface is available to the incoming liquids. Candle filters can be sterilized by steaming, by hot moist air, or by autoclaving. Cleaning may be affected by drawing a large volu me of distilled water through the candle filter thereby completely washing the preceding(prenominal) solution from the pores. Thus the surface of the filter should be gently scrubbed with a soft brush, rinsed healthy with water and finally ignited in a muffle furnace. The main disadvantage of such filters s that the pores become plugged with organisms and debris which necessitate a very thorough cleaning. Sietz filter It consists of an asbestos pad. The pads are available in several porosities that make them valuable for polishing of solutions as well as removal of bacteria. Unless moreover the filter is backed with nylon mesh or sintered stainless brace fibers occasionally get into the solution. The dismay edge is fitted with a broad flat flange and the upper part is cylindrical. A perforate plate fitted into a lower part of the funnel supports the asbestos pad.As the pads are meant only for single use, the cleaning of filter media is no problem. Each time a fresh pad is to b e used. The apparatus is simple in operation but fitted mostly for small quantities of liquids. Sintered glass filters These are made of borosilicate glass. Borosilicate glass is finely powdered, sieved and particle of desired size are separated. It is then packed in to a disc mould and heated to a temperature at which adhesion takes place between the particles. The disc is then fused to a funnel of suitable shape and size. The sintered glass filters are available in different pore size.Hence the funnel with a sintered filter is numbered according to the pore size. The filtration is carried out under reduced pressure. These funnels are used for bacterial filtration. Sintered filters are also available in stainless steel which has a greater mechanical strength. However these are very much liable to approach shot by the solutions passing through them. Edge filters In edge filters a pack of the filter media used and filtration is done edges by passing the liquid or slurry between an d not through the media. Such filtration must be conducted under pressure or under partial vaccum system.Meta filter and stream line filter are two types of edge filters but the former is of greater use in pharmaceutical industry. Meta filters Meta filters are useful in those manufacturing processes where filter presses are not frequently suitable. It requires no cloth, gauges, paper etc. and may be used at any pressure and temperature and for any liquid. It can be thoroughly cleaned after each operation. In its simplest form, meta filters consists of a grooved drainage rod or guide tube on which a series of rings are packed. On keeping the pack and finds its way along the grooves in drainage rod and ultimately to the receiver.These may be operated with pressure or under vaccum system. The rings are usually of stainless steel, of about 15mm inside diameter, 22mm outside diameter and 0. 8mm in thickness, with a number of semicircular projections on one surface. These pressure filter s can be used for the filtration of very viscous liquids such as syrups or oils by fitting a steam jacket and rendering the liquids less viscous. They are also useful in the clarification of injection solutions and products such as insulin liquids. This type of filter can be cleaned easily by back-flushing with water or steam.Because of the shape of the pores in the ring, back-flushing will wash away the filter bed completely. Meta filters are very economic in use. Streamline filters Operation wise and also geometrically, the streamline filter is similar to meta filter but the cylindrical filter pack consists of compressed paper discs. The liquid flow takes place radially inwards through the small space between individual papers and through the papers themselves. Membrane filters * Ultra filtration methods have become popular in recent geezerhood mainly due to increased refinement of various membranes. Cellulose and cellulose derivatives are mostly commonly used materials for these filters. They are available in a wide range of pore sizes, ranging from 8 down to 0. 22. * However, for sterile filtration, membranes with pore size of 0. 22 to 0. 45 are usually specified. * As such fine porosity of membranes may get clogged rapidly, a prefilter is used to remove colloidal matter in order to extend the filtration cycle. * The filter primarily acts as a simple screen and retains on its surface all particles of size greater than the pore size of the filter (resembling sieving action). Due to an enormous number of very fine pores, the pore volume approximates 80% of the total volume of the membrane. * The action of the filter is mainly due to the feature forces of gravity and van Der Waals forces. * Membrane efficiency can be predicted in terms of its bubble point which is a characteristic function of porosity. It is defined as the pressure required to push air through a liquid saturated filter. Filter pores retain liquid until this point is reached. * Each membrane has specific bubble point which depends on the liquid wetting the membrane. An obvious disadvantage of membrane filter is their crispiness when dry and this makes handling difficult. The use of filters in cartridge form, overcomes this problem. * Apart from the small laboratory models, large models are available for pilot plant and small scale production to cope up to about 25litres/ narrow of liquid through a 0. 45 pore size membrane. * Membrane filters find extensive use in filtration and sterilization of a variety of pharmaceutical products such as ophthalmic and intravenous solutions, other aqueous products, biological preparations, hormones and enzymes. In conjunction with a suitable pipette syringe, it is very useful in dispensing measured volumes of sterile fluids. * This assembly is often utilized for handling of pharmaceutical, biological and bacteriological preparations which can be damaged by metallic contact. Centrifugation Centrifugation is a unit operation employed for separating the constituents present in the diffusion with the aid of the centrifugal force. Equipment used for centrifugation is extractor. motor(a) force is used to provide the driving force for the separation. It replaces the sobriety force in the bank deposit.Centrifugation is particularly useful when separation by ordinary filtration is difficult. Centrifugation provides convenient method of separating two immiscible liquids or solid from liquid. * Centrifugation is a separation process which uses the action of centrifugal force to elevate accelerated settling of particles in a solid-liquid mixture. * If particles size in the dispersions is 5 micro meter or less, they undergo Brownian motion, hence they do not Sediment under gravity, therefore a stronger force, centrifugal force is applied in order to separateTwo distinct major phases are formed in the vessel during centrifugation Thedown payment Usually does not have a uniform structure. Thecentrifugateorcentratewhich is the supernatant liquid. Process of centrifugation The cartridge remover consists of a container in which mixture of solid and liquid or two solids is placed and rotated at high speeds. The mixture is separated into its constituent parts by the action of the centrifugal force on their densities. A solid or liquid with higher specific gravity is thrown outward with greater force & it is retained at the base of the container leaving a clear supernatant liquid.The speed of the centrifuge is commonly expressed in terms of number of revolutions per minute. Theory of centrifugation If a particle (mass = m kg) spins in a centrifuge (radius r, m) at a velocity (v, m s-1) then the centrifugal force (F, N) acting on the particle equals m v2/r. The same particle experiences gravitational force (G, Newton) = m g (where g = acceleration due to gravity) motor(a) force = f = mv2/r outward-moving effect (C) = F/G = mv2 /mgr (v = 2 ? r n ) c = (2? r n)2/ g r = 4 ? 2r n2/ g (d= r/2) = 2 ? 2 d n 2/ g (g = 9. 807) C = 2. 013 d n2 Centrifugal effect, C= 2. 013 n2d n= speed of rotation( revolution per second of centrifuge) * d= diameter of rotation So * Centrifugal effect is directly proportional to diameter of rotation * Centrifugal effect is directly proportional to (speed of rotation)2 There are two main types of centrifuge used to achieve separation on an industrial scale, * Filtration centrifuge Those using perforated hoops, which perform a filtration-type operation (work like a spin-dryer) and * Sedimentation centrifuge Those with a solid walled vessel, where particles sediment towards the wall under the influence of the centrifugal orce Perforated basket centrifuge normal Perforated Basket Centrifuge In this type of centrifuge, a basket is mounted above a driving shaft. This type of centrifuges are used for batch processes. belief Perforated basket ( coil) centrifuge is a filtration centrifuge. The separation through a perforated wall based on the difference in the densities of solid and liquid phases. The bowl contains a perforated side wall. During centrifugation, the liquid phase passes through a perforated wall, while solid phase is retained in the bowl.The solids are removed after lemniscus the centrifuge. plait It consists of a basket, made of steel (sometimes covered by vulcanite or led) or copper. The material of social organization should be such that it offers greatest resistance to corrosion. The basket may have diameter of 0. 90 meters and electrical condenser of 0. 085 meter cube. The diameter of perforations must be based on the size of crystals to be separated. The basket is suspended on a vertical shaft and is driven by a motor using suitable power system.Perforated basket is kept in a casing which collects the filtrate and discharges it through outlet. working(a) The material to be separated kept in the basket. The loading of material must be done to give an even distribution. The power is applied to run the basket at spe ed of 1000 rpm. During centrifugation the liquid passes through the perforated wall and solid phase retaind in the basket. Uses * Perforated basket centrifuge is extensively used for separation of crystalline drugs (aspirin) from mother liquor. Sugar crystals are separated using the perforated basket centrifuge. * Precipitated proteins from insulin can be separated. Advantages * The process is rapid * The final product has low moisture content * It cam handle slurries with high proportion of solids even those having paste like consistency * Dissolved solids from cake can be separated. Disadvantages * On prolonged operation solids may form hard cake. * It is a batch process. Non-Perforated Centrifuge Principle This is sedimentation centrifuge.The separation is based on the difference in the densities of solid and liquid phases without a porous barrier. The bowl contains a non perforated side wall. During centrifugation, solid phase is retained on the sides of the basket and liquid re mains at the top removed by skimming tube. Construction It consists of a basket, made of steel (sometimes covered by vulcanite or led) or copper. The material of construction should be such that it offers greatest resistance to corrosion. The basket is suspended on a vertical shaft and is driven by a motor using suitable power system Working The feed is continuously introduced into the centrifuge while the liquid (centrate) is continuously removed from an overflow weir inside the centrifuge * Solids build up during centrifugation forming a cake that must be periodically discharged Figure Non-Perforated Basket Centrifuge * After the basket becomes make full with solids the centrifuge slows down and skimming (the removal of the top semi-liquid soft cake layer) takes place * Skimming typically removes 5 to 15% of the bowl solid volume * The bulk of the cake is discharged using a ploughing knife moving into the slowly rotating cake * The solid is discharged centrally at the bottom of t he centrifuge * Solid accumulation is typically up to 60 to 85% of the maximum available depth * This type of centrifuge is typically operated at low centrifugal forces and has a relatively low solid handling capacity. The imperforated basket centrifuge is the only basket centrifuge commonly used for typical guck dewatering applications. * High solid recovery can be achieved with this centrifuge even without chemical additives. Uses Non-perforated basket centrifuge is useful when deposited solids offer high resisttance to the flow of liquid. Conical disc centrifuge Principle It is a sedimentation centrifuge. The separation is based on the difference in the the densities between phases under the influence of centrifugal force. In this a number of cone shaped plates are attached to the central shaft (which has provision for feed) at different elevations.During centrifugation, the dense solids are thrown outwards to the underside of cone shaped casing. While luminousness clarified li quid passes over bowl and collected from top of the cone. Construction It consists of shallow form of bowl containing series of conical discs attached to the central shaft at different elevations. The discs are made up of thin sheet of metal or plastic separated by narrow spaces. A homocentric tube is placed border the central drive shaft. Working The feed is introduced into the concentric tube surrounding the drive shaft. The feed flows down and enters the spaces between the discs. The solids and heavier liquids thrown out ward and move underside of the discs.Low speed and short time of centrifugation is sufficient to give high degree of clarification. Uses * Two immiscible liquids can be easily separated by continuous process after liquid-liquid extraction in lying of antibiotics. * Precipitated proteins in manufacture insulin can be clarified. Advantages * Conical disc centrifuge is compact and occupies very less space. * By controlling speed of rotation and rate of flow, parti cles are separated into two sizes. * Separating efficiency is very high. Disadvantages * Capacity of conical disc centrifuge is limited * Construction is complicated * Not suitable if sediment of solids form hard cake. Figure Conical Disc Centrifuge Tubular bowl centrifuge The tubular bowl centrifuge has been used for longer than most other designs of centrifuge. It is based on a very simple geometry it is formed by a tube, of length several times its diameter, rotating between bearings at each end. The process stream enters at the bottom of the centrifuge and high centrifugal forces act to separate out the solids. The bulk of the solids will adhere on the walls of the bowl, while the liquid phase exits at the top of the centrifuge. * As this type of system lacks a provision of solids rejection, the solids can only be removed by stopping the machine, dismantling it and scraping or flushing the solids out manually. Tubular bowl centrifuges have dewatering capacity, but limited solids capacity. foaming can be a problem unless the system includes special skimming or centripetal pumps. Figure Tubular bowl centrifuge * This type of centrifuge can also be used to separate immiscible liquids. * Rate of sediment can be control by controlling the inlet rate. * The uses of centrifugal sedimenters include liquid/liquid separation, e. g. during antibiotic manufacture and purification of fish oils, the removal of very small particles, the removal of solids that are Compressible and which easily block the filter medium, The separation of blood plasma from unharmed blood (need C =3000).
Sunday, May 19, 2019
a. Explain the value chain for gilt mining firms (how can a mine create a competitive advantage carnal knowledge to its rivals). What ar the factors that may explain transcendent performance of ABX relative to the otherwise favourable mines?To create a competitive advantage, a mine has to correctly manage its exposure to specious cost fluctuations. This is not an easy thing to do since there are so many factors to consider when, how much, and how to surround the currency production. Firms in this industry differentiate themselves based on the jeopardy of exposure management strategies they implement. Furtherto a greater extent, mines should as well as be able to minimize the cost of metal(prenominal) production along with making large sunk costs. Operating in this sector obliges the companies to make huge investments to create the right(a) infrastructure to dig and process the ore therefore, they should be financially stable on order to afford put large amount of mon ey.ABX implement a gold hedgerow program that quickly became an integral array of its corporate strategy. This strategy helped it to hedge efficiently against gold price fluctuation. Besides, it allowed it to occasionally sell its gold at prices above those of the grocery store. The exceptional performance of ABX was also due to its annual acquisitions. Luck was an important aspect as well, since gold was discovered in most of its new properties. Moreover, American Barrick generated a lot of cash, which it reinvested to finance its growth.It was also able to cut its expenses in order to enhance its growing profitability. The management of American Barrick wanted to glow its activities by listing the company in Toronto, Montreal, and the United States among others. The top managers were very serious about belongings a financial stability and a liquid balance sheet by issuing fewer debts and hedging against risk. All in all, American Barrick attracted a lot of investors because of its risk management strategies, expected prospective growth, strong and liquid balance sheet, and finally its efficient management team.b. Quantify the nature of gold exposure, that is, in the absence of a hedging program using financial instruments, how sensitive would Barrick stock be to gold prices changes? For every 1% change in gold prices, how might its stock price be touched? How could the firm manage its gold price exposure without the use of financial contracts? If American Barrick wanted to foster itself from gold price exposure without the use of financial contracts, it could use natural hedges. One way to hedge against undesired risk is to match cash flows such as revenues and expenses.In other words, a trade good producer such as American Barrick, which has revenues payables in U.S. dollars and incurs cash outflows in a different currency, pass on try to match its outflows to its expected inflows in the foreign currency. Another way of hedging against risk is th e secure of indemnification to protect against financial loss due to external influences. It is also common to hedge gold investments against fluctuations of the U.S. dollar. It is extremely important for commodity traders to know which currency is correlated with what commodity in order to be able to predict certain market movements for instance, there is often a negative correlation amidst gold and S&P 500.c. What is the stated intent of ABXs hedging program? What are the arguments for managing gold price exposure? ABX wanted to lock in the price at which it could sell its output in order to avoid seeing the expected value of its projects fluctuate widely. It wanted to differentiate itself from its competitor by choosing the right hedging policy. ABX aimed at being financially stable by protecting itself against the dips in the gold price. It vehemently argued that managing gold price exposure would allow it appropriately forecast its cash flows, rise its production, and offers its investors a clear vision of their future earnings.d. How would you characterize the evolution of Barricks price risk management activities? ar they consistent with the stated policy goals? American Barrick used to use gold financings. Through this way of financing, investors could well-being from both the increase incurred in the volumes of gold to the trust and the gold price. In 1984 and 1985, ABX used forward gross sales right after a sharp drop in gold prices. This strategy allowed the company to travel by its exposure to price drops however, it also limited its opportunities to benefit when the prices rose. This led it to try option-based insurance strategies that could manage the risk but still allow retaining some of the benefits of rising prices. However, as it needed contracts with a longer maturity, ABX shifted to while deferred contracts. The evolution of Barricks risk management activities is characterized by its wish to be fully protected against price decline s and still be able to capture benefit from increasing gold prices.The risk management strategies implemented by American Barrick were consistent with their goals since its positions grew considerably. e. How should a gold mine which wants to moderate its gold price risk compare hedging strategies (using futures, forwards, gold loans, or spot deferred contracts) with insurance strategies (using options)? On what basis should these decisions be make? once a firm has decided on either a hedging or an insurance strategy, how should it choose from among specific alternatives? A mine that wants to moderate its gold price risk should first go bad the differences between the hedging and the insurance strategies. Indeed, hedging allows eliminating risk by giving up the potential for gain. darn an insurance strategy requires a premium to eliminate risk but allows retaining the potential for gain.The decision should be made based on the cost of the strategy, the maturity of the strategy, an d the peak to which the strategy allows to benefit from potential gains. Once a firm has decided on what strategy to follow it should choose among the existing alternatives of each strategy. For the hedging strategy, the company should take into consideration the particularity of each financial instrument. Indeed, forward sales for instance, are usually for relatively short delivery periods of under a few years.However, a continuous drop in gold prices might negatively affect the opportunity for the firm to sell at higher market prices. On the other hand, spot deferred contracts allow having multiple delivery dates. They enable the firm to profit from increases in the price and yet set a token(prenominal) price on its sales. For the insurance strategy, the main chore encountered by the firm is that of the cost. Indeed, the firm should use the premiums received from the sale of calls to purchase puts. That way the cash inflows and outflows make void out. The firm can also reduce the cost of insurance by adjusting the exercise prices and rations of puts and calls to determine the degree at which it chose to participate in gold price rises.f. What is a spot deferred contract? Explain the mechanics of the contract. Is it an option? A forward contract? Why has ABX chosen to rely on spot deferred contracts relative to other gold derivatives?As defined in the case, a spot deferred contract is a pillowcase of forward sale of gold. At the opposite of a forward where the delivery is set on condition day (maturity), SDCs are characterized by multiple delivery dates. It is up to the seller to choose on which rollover date they would make the delivery. The seller has the choice to defer the delivery up until the end of the contract. In other words, the seller had flexibility as to when they would like to deliver the quantity of gold.ABX preferred SDCs to other gold derivatives for the simple reason that they allowed it to profit from increases in the price of gold and yet set a minimum price on its sales of gold. Therefore, as years have gone by, ABX found itself using more and more SDCs at the expense of other hedging vehicles.
Saturday, May 18, 2019
Seven years ago, a charwoman and a mother refused to overmaster her only daughter to be under the atrocious l close oneself of fe priapic person circumcision. Moolaad is the humbug of this woman, Coll Ardo, a insurgent and strong-minded second wife of Cir in a small secluded African village who single-handedly refused to allow five girls to suffer through the customary Salind ceremony. She was in reverse with the practice of genital mutilation cod to her personal experiences and she didnt want others to suffer like her. Colls Moolaad enraged the Salindana, who were the women who performed civilisation ritual and the male elders who viewed her actions as threats to their values. As a sign of dominance, the men confiscated the womens radios, which devastated the women because it was their source to news and music away of their isolated lives.When the five girls escaped the Salind ceremony and came to Coll, she willingly offered them Moolaad, or protection. Coll was scarred a fter losing devil children during vaginal birth due to her own genital mutilation. She remembers the pain she had to go through and the nurse had to open her up to salve her only surviving daughter, Amasatou. Coll remained firm that she would neer let Amasatou to endure the agony of be cut. Colls prophylactic device with the old tradition caused outrage in the dominating patriarchal society who viewed her actions as disrespect to tradition and Islamic religion. The male elders took away the womens radios because they didnt want women being find outd by radical ideas.Coll was intensely pressured by the Salindana and the male elders, including her husband to swindle the Moolaad. Her refusal forced her husband to whip her publically but she never once uttered the word. Colls actions reflected her bravery and determination which mobilized the other women in the village to support Colls intentions and realize the horrid effects of purification. She was an intelligent woman who en couraged the other women to realize that the men were oppressing them from the honor by taking away their radios, so the women wouldnt ponder over unreasonable ideas. Coll supported her ingrained opposition to genital mutilation with evidence that contradicted the mens inaccurate dictations.While, listening to the radio Coll had learned that Islam didnt tolerate distaff genital mutilation because thousands of Islamic women would go to Mecca for pilgrimage and they werent cut, which shocked many of the male elders who still appe bed to be ignorant. Through this, the women in the village united together and bonded through the pain distributively of them suffered through their genital mutilations. There is a sense of relief and happiness that reflect off these women in the end when they burned the knives used to bring suffering to generations of women who feel under the dreadful practice. As Coll and the village women in their struggles end the practice of female genital cutting, they began their own feminism movement revolutionizing their purpose in society.Both characters having hold backn the world beyond the village and convinced of the take away for adjustment become unlikely ally of Coll and the village women in their struggles to end the practice of female genital cutting. Such unlikely partnerships forged across ethnic, class, gender and generational lines break historically been crucial to the victory of human rights struggles. In the campaign against the practice of female genital cutting, they are essential and Moolad shows us why. caused a sudden sentiency among the other ladened women in the village when her husband whipped her publically but she never once uttered the word. Allegedly eradicationUnlike many recent Hollywood make put downs somewhat Africa, Moolad is a story about Africa made by Africans from a distinctly local anaesthetic emplacement. Yet, it speaks to universal themes of power, oppression and emancipation. In depicti ng one womans struggle to protect others from an oppressive and inhibiting tradition, Sembene brings great sensitivity and refinement to topic that is often discussed from simplistic, wicked and polarizing standpoints. He deftly explores not only the conflict between local traditional values and the influence of modern ideas, but also the gender and generational tensions within a community largely isolated from the outback(a) world.Although the film obviously seeks to challenge the practice of female genital cutting and raise questions about its legitimacy, it does so with sensitivity to underlying affable complexities. It provides a glimpse into the perspective of local African tribesmen who see the practice of female genital cutting as process of purification and older women who see it as a necessary rite of passage for their daughters. However disagreeable their positions may appear, Sembene brings their voices to the story in a way that is neither condescending nor patroniz ing.Beyond its message, Moolad is a cinematic delight. Sembene assembles a group of colourful characters that annex depth to his portrayal of rural African life and make for a more compelling storyline. Although this film is essentially about the local tribulations of an African village, it still mange to engage the outside world through two intriguing characters a local itinerant vendor, nicknamed Mercenaire who previously worked as an helper worker, and a favoured son of the village Chief, Ibrahima, who re loosenesss home from his studies in France to take a bride. Both characters having seen the world beyond the village and convinced of the need for change become unlikely allies of Coll and the village women in their struggles to end the practice of female genital cutting. Such unlikely partnerships forged across ethnic, class, gender and generational lines have historically been crucial to the success of human rights struggles. In the campaign against the practice of female g enital cutting, they are essential and Moolad shows us why.Ultimately, this moving-picture show is not simply about oppression and social turmoil or about progressive citizens and regressive traditions. It is more about the resilience of the human spirit and the tenacity of common people determined to change their destinies. It is an excursion into the dilemmas that confront a society caught in the midst of social and cultural change. For the human rights savant and teacher, it provides a subtle but invaluable resource for raising awareness about the practice of female genital cutting and offers a means of understanding and explaining a moot topic to an audience unfamiliar with(predicate) with the social and cultural intricacies associated with the practice. Set in a remote Muslim village in Burkina Faso, Moolad is the story of Coll, a defiant and strong-willed second wife of an elder in a West African village who refuses to allow four little girls to undergo the traditional ci rcumcision ceremony. later losing two daughters in vaginal birth due to her own circumcision, Coll had refused to allow her surviving daughter, Amasatou, to face the ordeal of being cut. Colles moolaad stirs the anger of the Salidana, a group of women dressed in red gowns who perform the mutilation. She is also forced to stand up to the deterrence of her husband and his brother and the male elders in the village who see her as a threat to their values. As a gesture of control, the men confiscate the womens radios, their main source of news of outside life. stiffly defending their traditions and what they questionably see as a practice sanctioned by Islam, they also turn against an itinerant merchant they call Mercenaire (Dominique Zeida) who comes to the aid of Colle in a shocking scene of public flogging. As the issue becomes crystallized, many women rally to Colles support whose courage in the face of determined opposition is of heroic proportions.She is thrust into an unfolding drama of village politics when she offers Moolad (protection) to the girls who escape the circumcision ceremony. Moolad is the mystical protection which in the local custom can be invoked to provide place of safety. Colls interference draws the fury of her late patriarchal community which sees her action as an affront on its culture and Islamic religion. Coll can lift the Moolad with a single word and comes under the intense pressure of the male elders, her husband and some better half women to do so. Her resolute refusal to lift the Moolad draws other women and girls to her cause and sets the stage for a standoff with the village elders that erupts in the centre of the village and shatters the tranquility of the community.Unlike many recent Hollywood made films about Africa, Moolad is a story about Africa made by Africans from a distinctly local perspective. Yet, it speaks to universal themes of power, oppression and emancipation. In depicting one womans struggle to protect other s from an oppressive and inhibiting tradition, Sembene brings great sensitivity and nuance to topic that is often discussed from simplistic, patronizing and polarizing standpoints.He deftly explores not only the conflict between local traditional values and the influence of modern ideas, but also the gender and generational tensions within a community largely isolated from the outside world. Although the film obviously seeks to challenge the practice of female genital cutting and raise questions about its legitimacy, it does so with sensitivity to underlying social complexities. It provides a glimpse into the perspective of local African tribesmen who see the practice of female genital cutting as process of purification and older women who see it as a necessary rite of passage for their daughters. However disagreeable their positions may appear, Sembene brings their voices to the story in a way that is neither condescending nor patronizing.Beyond its message, Moolad is a cinematic d elight. Sembene assembles a group of colourful characters that add depth to his portrayal of rural African life and make for a more compelling storyline. Although this film is essentially about the local tribulations of an African village, it still mange to engage the outside world through two intriguing characters a local itinerant vendor, nicknamed Mercenaire who previously worked as an aid worker, and a favoured son of the village Chief, Ibrahima, who returns home from his studies in France to take a bride. Both characters having seen the world beyond the village and convinced of the need for change become unlikely allies of Coll and the village women in their struggles to end the practice of female genital cutting. Such unlikely partnerships forged across ethnic, class, gender and generational lines have historically been crucial to the success of human rights struggles. In the campaign against the practice of female genital cutting, they are essential and Moolad shows us why.U ltimately, this movie is not simply about oppression and social turmoil or about progressive citizens and regressive traditions. It is more about the resilience of the human spirit and the tenacity of ordinary people determined to change their destinies. It is an excursion into the dilemmas that confront a society caught in the midst of social and cultural change.For the human rights scholar and teacher, it provides a subtle but invaluable resource for raising awareness about the practice of female genital cutting and offers a means of understanding and explaining a controversial topic to an audience unfamiliar with the social and cultural intricacies associated with the practice. Set in a remote Muslim village in Burkina Faso, Moolad is the story of Coll, a defiant and strong-willed second wife of an elder in a West African village who refuses to allow four little girls to undergo the traditional circumcision ceremony. After losing two daughters in childbirth due to her own circumc ision, Coll had refused to allow her surviving daughter, Amasatou, to face the ordeal of being cut.