Monday, September 30, 2019

School-Based Consultations

Behavioral model looks closely at the behaviors of the victims, by going back by collecting data on their behavioral history. The behavioral modeling is meant to assess at the behavioral patterns of an individual from the past and relate to them to the present, know why individual is behaving in that strange manners, whether the causes for the behavior change could be the family, environment, the friends, the workplace or the community and then look for strategies that can assist in correcting the behavior. In behavioral modeling the consultant should look for ways of trying to modify the behavior of the boy and also know why the boy is behaving in that strange way. Within an overall setting of concern for the boy’s interest, the consultant’s intervention falls into one of the following categories; a) prescriptive which is about giving advice and instructions and being directive and critical, b) informative by imparting new knowledge, instructing and interpreting, c) confronting which is challenging a restrictive attitude or direct feedback within a caring context, d) carthartic, which is seeking to release emotion in the form of laughter, trembling and anger, e)catalytic which is encouraging the boy to discover and explore his own latent thoughts and feelings and f) supportive which is offering comfort and approval, affirming the boy’s intrinsic value. On the setting and background issues, the consultant should be prepared fully for the job. He/she should have all the necessary background information about the boy to be talked. The consultant should at least be briefed by the teacher on what has been done and areas which need to be looked at, such that when handling the boy, it could be easy to approach him and know what kind of questions to ask him. The place/room should be set for the consultation exercise and it should be convenient to the boy. The boy should be psychologically prepared for the exercise for it to be successful. The goals of consultation are to engage experienced and qualified personnel in a particular field from outside the institution, family, school organization or any set up so as to be able to handle a particular issue or problem from a different perspective without influence from any body. The consultant is supposed to be a person who is highly qualified and who has been in the field/profession for a long time and has that experience which is needed to handle a particular issue without any problem. The consultant should be a person who has good morals, follows the laid down professional ethics and codes of conduct and who respects his/her clients without regarding their age but treating them with much respect and care. They are supposed to be people who are highly dependable because their end product will be an important document which will be used to enforce or implement drastic measures that are meant to improve the present condition of a person from worse to better. For any consultancy to be undertaken, the consultant should be interviewed to find out whether he/she will be able to handle the problem at hand. This is meant to save time and get the expected results at the end of the consultancy. On the side of the consultee (the boy), the consultant should find out whether has had any encounter with any consultant previously and know how they interacted. The boy should at least be aware what consultations means and what is required of him during the exercise. The model coordinates a set of what is called steps which should answer two pertinent questions; when should each step be taken? and when are the inputs to each step determined? The steps include the following; a) Initiating a session-the consultant should first initiate a session for discussion. He/she should introduce him/herself to the boy so that the boy could be aware of who he is going to discuss with. The initial rapport will determine on how the discussion will flow. The consultant should tell the boy what he expects from him and the boy should be given time to decide if he will be willing to talk to the consultant. b) Find out about the historical background of the family/ information gathering- the consultant should critically look at the behavioral patterns of the boy’s family before making conclusions. He should find whether really the father’s sickness affects his performance. Are there other members of the family who are still in school and have been affected by the same? The consultant should find out whether if the boy was counseled previously and if there was any impact. He should compare the academic performance of the boy before the father was sick and during the time he is sick and then come up with a conclusion. It may be possible that the boy could be using the father’s sickness to perform poorly. At the same time if the family belongs to a fundamentalist religious sect that had been subject to investigative journalism into alleged mind control by a national news show, this can also change the boy’s behavior. The fundamentalist sects teach their followers on radical issues which completely changes the mind and behavior settings of their followers. Too much of radicalism and fundamentalism might have entered into the boys mind and changed him completely and thus affected his academic performance. The behavior patterns of the boy should be traced from the time he joined the fundamentalist religious sect and at the same time look at the behavioral patterns of the other family members. c) Explaining and planning-this is the best moment for the consultant to provide the correct amount and type of information that is required from the boy. Some information may not be necessary and it is up to the consultant to control the discussion with the boy and stick only to the topic so as not to waste time on matters that will not be helpful. The consultant should also make the boy recall of his worst behavioral acts such that these can bring the boy closer into condemning himself but at the same time trying to create a behavioral change within himself without being forced. This is meant to achieving a shared understanding between the boy and the consultant and makes a way for a shared decision making. d) Isolation- the boy should be isolated from others, but two or three people should be with him to give him company and must be visited to monitor on his behavioral change. The consultants should in isolation with the boy study his behaviors and know what is really happening. He should dig deep into the past history of the boy, the behaviors of the family and the circumstances that have made him to behave like so. This information can only be gotten from the boy when he is alone with the consultant whereby he has the freedom of expressing himself freely. When a victim of the circumstance is mixed with people of the same problem it becomes very difficult to get information from him/her because those who are with that person may influence his/her answering to the questions asked. Isolation does not mean that the boy should be completely isolated from other children or the family but put in isolation when talking to the consultant. The consultant must also make sure that the isolation process does not affect the boy but improves his concentration during the discussion exercise. ) Show the paternal and maternal love-the consultant should at his/her level best the paternal and maternal love to the boy. The boy may have been affected by the father’s sickness in that the boy might have been very close to his father and now he is sick and maybe admitted in the hospital. The boy is missing the paternal love from the time the father became sick. This has stressed the by to a point he can’t perform well in class. This is something very important that the consultant should look at keenly. Every person needs the love of both parents to grow and develop normally and if the boy is missing the love and absence of the father, his mind set and behavior will change. The teacher may conclude that the boy’s behaviors have change including his performance and that he is using the father’s sickness to perform poorly without considering that, true the father’s sickness is a contributing factor to his behavioral changes and poor academic performance. f) Become closer to the boy- the consultant should develop a very close relationship with the boy. He should make the boy to be comfortable with him/her all the time they will be spending together. The consultant should not be sympathetic to the boy as this will worsen the situation but should make sure that boy understands what he is going through and should develop a positive attitude towards change as this will be for the benefit of his psychological well being. The consultant must also involve the friends of the boy to find out more about the boy’s behavior when they are together. The friends should be encouraged to talk to the boy on changing his behavior pattern and they should at the same time tell him the consequences of his changed bad behavior in a friendlier manner. The consultant should even take the boy away from the school if the boy feels that the place is uncomfortable for him for discussions. This will give the boy more freedom to express himself and will build confidence and trust between him and the consultant. It is up to the consultant also to build the rust and confidence with the boy and this will depend as to how she/he will handle himself/herself towards the boy. The consultant must also involve the family members who should be urged to become closer to the boy. May be the mother is very busy attending to the husband’s sickness and so there is no one to even help the boy to relieve the tensions and stresses that are disturbing his well being. The family members and friends should play a bigger role in modeling the behavior of this boy through being closer and talking positively to him and infact this will make the boy to change his attitudes. g) The consultant should start counseling the boy on issues relating to what is happening to him. He should handle the boy with all the respect he needs and should prepare him fully for the counseling sessions. The counseling should not be made to blame him for his bad behaviors but should be meant to mould his behavior for better. The consultant should arrange the counseling sessions with the boy and should not be forced to attend the sessions. The consultant should in the process of counseling the boy be able to give the boy real life examples or show the boy video pictures of the boys of similar age of him, what they underwent and its consequences. From this point of view, the boy will be able to make a decision by himself without being forced but will have to be given options from which he can choose what is best for him. h) The consultant should avoid as much as possible condemning the boy for his bad behaviors but make him realize that his behaviors are not generally agreeable to he teachers and every body and so there is need for him to change. May be the boy has developed enemies including his teachers, but should try and reconcile with them. Since the boy has joined the fundamentalist religious sect, the consultant should not condemn the sect too much to a point of telling the boy that those in the sect have very bad behaviors, but should a look for away of explaining to the boy on the bad side of joining the sect and its negative effects on an individuals mind and behavior. i) The consultant should hold discussions with the teachers of the boy to gather more information about him. The teachers can also contribute towards the behavioral change and attitudes of the boy. There could be teachers instead of helping the boy to improve his performance are always condemning him of his failure. The consultant should request for the records of the boy from the class teacher which will give more information about the boy academic performance and the behavioral records. The teachers should explain to the consultant as to why they are concerned that the boy may be using the father’s illness as an excuse not to performing well academically or there are other hindering factors not including the boy not liking math and science subjects. The consultant should explain to the teachers that the boy says that he doesn’t like the teachers who do not take time to listen to him. ) The consultant should consider telling the boy that if he develops a positive attitude towards maths and sciences and if he concentrates more on his studies than in the fundamentalist sect, he will perform better and will be rewarded for this. This will be a roadway to behavioral change as the boy will be challenged to critically think and analyze his present behavior and its rewards and then measure it with what could become if he changes completely and its rewards. The rewards are meant to give morale and change the reasoning of the boy in that good behavior comes with good things. k) The consultant should make an effort of visiting the boy’s father privately to explain to him that his sickness has greatly affected the boy’s performance. The consultant should encourage the sick father to talk to the boy to change his attitude even though the sickness has affected his behavior and performance. At the same time, the consultant should visit the hospital with the boy so that they can have a discussion together. The father should encourage the boy to work harder in class and put aside his sickness as he (the boy) must continue normally with life and should have faith that father will get well quickly. If the parents of the boys are also members of the fundamentalist religious sect, the consultant should talk with them and express his concern about the boy’s behavior and at the same time discuss with them about how their sect is being discussed on national television and explain how this has affected the boy’s behavior and performance. This will give them food for thought and at the end of it all, they will sit down as a family and discuss seriously about this issue. l) If there is need to change the school where the boy is learning to a different new one, the change for the class teacher or the subject masters in the present school as per the recommendation of the consultant, it should be implemented. The general environment of the school can change the behaviors of the child for better or for worse. The boy should be made to make a wise decision and based on what the consultant will recommend, a shared and common decision will be made without hurting or influencing anyone. If it is found that the teachers handling maths and science subjects are bullying the boy because he is weak in those subjects, they should be told and be changed as may be there could be other children who are affected in the same way and have developed a negative attitude towards the teachers and the subjects and so their behaviors. This should be corrected earlier enough before the situation becomes a crisis. The implication for practice is to give the best professional advice to those clients who need the services. The services are about giving hope and bring change to the affected victims, their family members, friends and the community at large. Consultancy comes in when other alternatives have failed and this is regarded as the last resort as it gives recommendations which give the right way forward on what should be done to arrest the situation. Since the practice is more professional, it means that the end results will be practical and will provide a solution which will be workable and acceptable by all. Conclusion For any problem which arises, an approach has to be found. This approach should be relevant and should be able to solve the problem. Solving an issue related to the behavior of a human being needs a lot of time, commitment and perseverance. The person who has the problem should not be hurried or be blamed for the mistakes they have made or for their bad behaviors. They should be made to realize that what they are doing is not right and so should change for the better of their well being. Concerted efforts must be made by those who can be able to help the victims of the circumstance to change. Change is not forced but it is a process which takes time and it will depend on the individual’s behavior and attitude towards the change which could be good or bad. Consultants should handle their work more professionally because they are paid for their services. The end result must be acceptable and should provide a way forward on how a crisis will be solved. Finally the consultants should make follow ups on their clients to find out whether there is any positive change or a correction has to be made.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Common Law Essay

Common Law is the body of law developed from custom or judicial decisions in English and U.S. courts, not attributable to a legislature. Which means that it is a system in which principles are developed based on past situations with similar conditions. In this sense common law is founded on the precedence of first occasions. In the case of an event that an instance has never before happened the outcome of this event sets the precedent for futher cases. American law is based on federal and state constitutions. The Constitution of The United States is considered to be the supreme law of the land and no law can supersede that law. The Constitution sets the guidelines for all law in the states. This also deems for laws within states the law of the states are considered to be the law of that particular state, and is the law their unless deemed un-constitutional by the Constitution. The importance of precedent in the judicial decision making process is that laws and past cases can be examples in decisions to be made. The relevance in legal principles is what makes things related in a legal process and helps influence decisions and which makes this process work. Equitable remedies are a branch of law founded on notions of justice and fair dealing. This supplies a remedy when there is not a adequate remedy available. While a legal remedy is when a court of law exercises the law and enforces the right and orders the penalty.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

An Analysis of the Blind Optimism in Something Wicked This Way Comes, a Novel by Ray Bradbury

An Analysis of the Blind Optimism in Something Wicked This Way Comes, a Novel by Ray Bradbury While reading this book, I first struggled with the question of how it pertained directly to the class material. It seems almost as if the book is written as one long poem. While I was typing my exam, I began to take notice of similarities between the characters in the book and the over arching theme of optimism that I stressed in my paper. The first fifteen, or so, chapters describes one single day where we get to know the characters. In this section of the book we meet Will and Jim, two 13 year old boys. Jim is the more adventurous of the two boys and will is more reserved. It seems like he always follows Jim at a distance, but either way Jim can persuade him to do almost anything. We also meet Charles Halloway in this first part of the novel. He is Will’s father and works in the town library. In this early part of the novel I can relate to the attitudes that were present in America after the first World War. Jim represents America’s blind optimism in regards to creat ing in a utopia. Jim is all of the wall street speculators who believed there was no end to the rising stock prices. Will can be related to America’s more reserved side, he is equally ambitious but. Like I said, follows Jim at a distance. He lets Jim make mistakes but is always there to help him. Will plays a similar role to the presidents during the early half of the 1920’s. He doesn’t over regulate Jim but is always there to support him. Will’s father Charles Halloway is the lessons that we don’t learn from history. His demeanor in the first part of the novel is that of sadness. There is a sense that he knows how the world really works and despite this he is still secretly intrigued by the arriving carnival. This is where Will gets his reserved side , similar to how presidents are always studiers of history. Will learns from the mistakes of his father. When the carnival finally arrives at town, members of the community such as the boys’ teacher Miss Foley, Mr. Cougar and the lightning rod salesman are all enticed and seduced by the carnival and the tattoo ed man that runs it. Mr. Dark has the ability to fulfill their desires but as a result these people will lose themselves to the carnival. This is similar to the theme of selling ones sole to the devil. The role Mr. Dark Plays is in our history textbooks is that of money. The members of the community are so blinded by the spectacle of the carnival(the stock market in 1921-1928) that all they see is an optimistic future ahead. Jim is one of these people enticed by the carnival. He also follows blindly. As the evil nature of the carnival is revealed, one can relate it to the stock market crash in 1929. As a result of people being over optimistic, they face negative consequences. Towards the end of the novel while Will and his father attempt to save Jim and end the carnival, they play a role similar to that of Presidents, Hoover and FDR, who attempt to restore America through their economic and social plans after the 1929 crash. At the end of the novel Jim(the optimism of the American people) has ended up confused and close to death. Will and Charles halloway save Jim by dancing and laughing. Jim’s revival symbolizes the countrys return to normalcy through the industry that happens during WWII. This brings us into the current day where the people of Green Town and people in modern day America still have the same opportunities to make mistakes or succeed through optimism. As far as a review go’s I did not enjoy the book that much. The writing was a little too poetic for my taste. I am more of a non fiction fan. I was reading it looking for it’s historical significance. The book serves the purpose of an allegorical reference to the optimist ic and foolish hopes of Americans.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Validity of the Beneficiary Principle Case Study

Validity of the Beneficiary Principle - Case Study Example The principle of the â€Å"human beneficiary was first set out in the case of Morice v Bishop of Durham2. Since equity starts out in the form of a measure of â€Å"confidence reposed in some other† which imposes â€Å"a duty or aggregate accumulation of obligations† that connotes some beneficial interest3, therefore in the absence of beneficiaries with equitable interests in the assets of the trust, there will be no one in whose favor the Court can decree performance and therefore the trust will fail.4 Alternatively, when there is no clearly identified human beneficiary, a trust could be classified as a charitable trust where the beneficiaries will extend to an entire class of people rather than being restricted to specific individuals, thereby satisfying the beneficiary principle without a clearly identified human beneficiary. However, in order to qualify as a charitable trust, it must satisfy one of the four purposes spelled out in the case of Pemsel5, i.e, (a) advan cement of religion (b) advancement of education (c) relief of poverty and (d) other purposes beneficial to the community. Alternatively, as specified in the case of Re Endacott, â€Å"a trust not being a charitable trust, in order to be effective must have ascertained or ascertainable beneficiaries.†6 In the case of Re Lipinski Oliver J draws a distinction in a testamentary disposition, between a purpose which is invalid (excluding tombs, animals and monuments cases), and a ‘people trust’ which is valid.7 Therefore, the beneficiary principle essentially invalidates trusts which are purpose trusts, unless it is (a) charitable (b) has ascertained or ascertainable beneficiaries or (c) is a trust of imperfect obligation, such as a trust for the upkeep of particular animals as in the case of Re Dean where the testator wanted his horses.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Alexis De Tocqueville and Democracy in America Essay

Alexis De Tocqueville and Democracy in America - Essay Example Furthermore, concerning Democracy in America, Tocqueville had vivid impressions on the equality of conditions that he saw in the United States. He described the dangers posed to liberty that is inherent in the majority rule, political consequences of the widespread property ownership, the influence of the judiciary and press in American politics. He also noted the importance of civil societies in an individualistic culture that was dominated by the self-interest, role of religion in the American society and the difference between the southern and the northern states (Tocqueville, n.d). The democratic impression that that Tocqueville had in mind is that â€Å"men will be perfectly free, because they will be equal, and they will be perfectly equal because they will be free† (Tocqueville, n.d. p.1). However, he warned that the American people’s passion of equality and liberty are unequal. In this phenomenon, the American people wanted equality in liberty and if they could not get it; they were ready to get it even if they are still in slavery. In conclusion, the visit of Tocqueville to the United States in1831 and his subsequent inquiries and interviews reveals the democracy of America during that time. In his manuscripts, he revealed the great democratic revolution that was going on in the Western World. He revealed that a democracy makes people equal, and free. However, he warned that the liberty could not be equated to equality (Tocqueville, n.d). Additionally, he pointed out that if the American people could not get their equality in liberty they were ready to get it even if in

Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 6

Marketing - Essay Example The various techniques used for the Nike shoe are then able to strategically position the shoes ahead of other competitors that are in the market to sell shoes. Background of Organization Nike was established in 1972 by business owner, Bill Bowerman. The idea began in 1964 with the desire to create an athletic shoe that could be used effectively for competitive sports. By 1971, Bowerman had established a shoe that would work and then created the Nike brand to develop the new mechanics and techniques for the shoe. Bowerman began by making a contract with the University of Oregon runner Phil Knight. The approach was to give running shoes that would help Knight to have ease o use while running without having some of the malfunctions that come with basic shoes that are used. The business quickly gained a strong reputation in footwear with a current stance of 160 countries which sell the footwear and the employment of over 1 million people. The approach is to use a set of diversity inclus ion within the organization while creating a strong reputation among those interested in the footwear (Nike, 2011). The success of Nike, with a revenue of $91.2 billion in 2010, is one which is based on a portfolio of products. There are now several affiliate businesses that work with Nike for the brand reputation. These include Cole Haan, Converse, Hurley International, Nike Golf and Umbro. The brand identity that is established all carries the overall features of the Nike logo. This is then divided into specific shoes used for sports, such as running shoes, basketball shoes and other specialized makes and models. There are also divisions for women, men and children to further the brand identity. Nike has incorporated sportswear as well as personal trainers with electronics to assist those that are looking for a different approach to their athletic regimen, creating a different set of brands within the Nike organization (Nike, 2011). Marketing Techniques and Strategies The marketin g techniques that are used by Nike involve several dimensions of finding what the best methods are to reach consumers. The first way in which this is done is by segmentation. The theory of segmentation is defined as creating a presence by noting different target markets which would be interested in a product. Meeting this need by establishing demographic relationships can then provide a stronger movement toward sales among those that are interested in the products (Alderson, Cox, 2006 pg. 137). The segmentation of the products isn’t done by developing the product first, then creating a market that will need the item. Instead, there is an established presence created by need first. Each of the shoes that are presented by Nike is segmented first, than established with the mechanics of the shoe to create a need within the segment. Basketball, soccer, football, running shoes and segments among women and men are some of the several ways that Nike has approached building its brand. This is done within the internal environment first, than leads to establishing a presence among those in need with the item. The concept of segmentation becomes essential by noting that there is a need among different groups of individuals, which Nike can then meet by building a reputation from the science used behind the makes and models of each of the shoes. The target

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Lindsay Lohan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Lindsay Lohan - Essay Example According to Russell Davies, Lindsay Lohan's negative publicity is helping her lagging career. Her target audience loves the drama in her life and has her fans begging for more. She appeals to her audience in the following ways: Drama: She is constantly embroiled in one drama or another; whether it is getting into a fight with her father or breaking up with her celebrity boyfriends or girlfriends. She has got more than enough media coverage over her love life In the past few years Lindsay has been in the news for all the wrong reasons. Drunken driving, alcoholism, addiction to prescription drugs, party hopping and multiple sexual relationships. Lohan's self- destructive behavior has generated concern among her fans that have idolized her. Achievement: Lindsay has been driven by the need of achievement at a very young age and has achieved success when she was a mere child. The possibility of failure may have made her insecure; hence it has come out in the destructive behavior that she has been indulging in lately. Autonomy: Perhaps the need for asserting her independence after years of shouldering the surrogate responsibility of supporting her family has led to a conflict within her subconscious needs, where she wants to give vent to the years when she wasn't able to have fun like other girls. Exhibition: She also drawn to the need for attention, perhaps Lohan believes that negative publicity is better than no publicity at all. Harm avoidance: she has put a restriction order on her father because she believes he has done enough damage to her immediate family. Succorance: There is also a chance that Lindsay's behavior is actually a subconscious cry for help, after her break up with Rogan she has openly confessed that "She is Alone." Celebrities often believe that they are above the law and that rules of social conduct do not apply to them because of their identity. They also revel in the media attention that they get when they suffer from addiction and other antisocial conflicts and behavior. According to Michael Scott, who works at Sierra Tucson, a renowned drug rehab facility in Arizona "Celebrities also know that admitting to an addiction gives them good press and can get them out of bad situations, such as fights, car accidents, moments of bigotry and so forth. By focusing on rehab, they avoid depictions of themselves as sexual predators, out-of-control alcoholics or people with severe psychiatric problems". There also certain glamour attached to celebrities who die young or destroy their lives and relationship, perhaps Lindsay Lohan is

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Old City of Jerusalem and Its Walls Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Old City of Jerusalem and Its Walls - Essay Example Considering the different plants and animals that are found in the region and their species being very rare, it can be understood that these living organisms involve a biological interrelationship between them. Hasson also mentioned in his article that carnivorous animals are also observed in the areas. These facts throw light on the dependence of one organism on another for their living that gives rise to the interrelationship between them. While carnivorous animals would feed on other smaller animals or organisms, these animals would feed on the different varieties of plants found in the region. Thus, the old city of Jerusalem and its walls reflect on the biological diversity available in the region and the biological interrelationships that they have between them.Considering the different plants and animals that are found in the region and their species being very rare, it can be understood that these living organisms involve a biological interrelationship between them. Hasson als o mentioned in his article that carnivorous animals are also observed in the areas. These facts throw light on the dependence of one organism on another for their living that gives rise to the interrelationship between them. While carnivorous animals would feed on other smaller animals or organisms, these animals would feed on the different varieties of plants found in the region. Thus, the old city of Jerusalem and its walls reflect on the biological diversity available in the region and the biological interrelationships that they have between them.... While carnivorous animals would feed on other smaller animals or organisms, these animals would feed on the different varieties of plants found in the region. Thus, the old city of Jerusalem and its walls reflect on the biological diversity available in the region and the biological interrelationships that they have between them. Human Intrusions Threatening the Area: The old city of Jerusalem and its walls are encountered severely with the threats arising from the intrusions from human beings. This is primarily because the status of the city is not known and there lies no general agreement as far as the political power is concerned. Thus there are claims from different power for the control of the city. These claims and differences have led to threats of devastation for the city. The resultant urban development leading to human intrusions throw light on the deterioration that the city encounters in the midst of the power claims. The conservation power of the city gets affected as a consequence of such activities (Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls, 2012). UNESCO has been performing its role in this regard trying to bring about the necessary rules and principles that can rescue the city and its heritage properties as well as the lives of the living organisms making their abodes in the abandoned regions of the city (Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls, 2012). Thus it can be realized that while human beings have the tendency to bring control on the city of Jerusalem intruding and creating threats for the city, threats also arise for the flora and fauna that have found their residence in the old city and its walls. This is indeed a matter of great concern since if protective measures cannot be taken, the rare species might be found to become extinct.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Analysis of filmmaking of French critic Andr Bazin Essay

Analysis of filmmaking of French critic Andr Bazin - Essay Example Your film motivated me to criticize over some of main points of your Film which inspired me. I have a very strong feeling on the montage and realism, in my opinion montage is necessary in many cases to make a film influential. I made preeminence between â€Å"those directors who put their confidence in the image and those who put their assurance in reality†. Like as your directorial style reality and everything that can support film such as sound, center of attraction for audience and editing, set what film should be. I admit that, it is mixture that gives nativity to film as an art. I felt that handling of the image by suggestive editing or the dramatic sets stands in such the way of releasing film’s true probability for realism. In my point of view introduction of sound is an essential element to enhance the reality of film as an art form. The introduction of sound reveals an expression of reality that was missing before. The film should blossoms in a delighting and t he environment must be artificial where even the movement of the actor’s sound reflection strained angular shapes of their setting. I would like to say that by using deep focus, you able to cover the whole scenario in one take, the camera remaining inactive; thanks to the depth of field. Dramatic effects were created out of the apparent motion of the actors among a fixed framework which were so fined. You used all the pioneers for a very good reason. Soft focus only seemed with montage. I also admit that it’s hard to make a film free from montage at all. In my sense no matter how film shot, is and always will be a piece of art; because film expresses the thoughts and the feelings of its maker, it can be relatable or less relatable. It can force its message forward in a plain, metaphoric or insidious way the message is still there invariably. The act of making film is already meddling with reality by capturing it a contrived form. I am not against of creativity; I belie ve that realism of cinema gives greater power of creativity. My realism is ultimately personal. You gratify in a great deal of symbolic and emblematic to tell us about your story. The way you used the realistic device of mystifying focus of symbolic effects such like placing a character further into a room to make him seem littler and more unimportant. It is not exaggeration to say that Citizen Kane is incredible shot in any other way but in depth. The uncertainty in which we find ourselves is the version we should put on the film is to it built into the very design of the image. In Citizen Kane I saw a â€Å"Revolution in the Language if the Screen†-one that drifted away the conversations of standard Hollywood storytelling at that time via different techniques, although Citizen Kane didn’t pioneer these techniques but you invested them with new meaning and power. You also used the â€Å"Unity of Image in Space and Time† for maintaining a single shot where as an other film might have required four or five shots. The camera has power to preserve and record real events in time and space by photographic procedure that’s independent of human version. I even found that stimulating challenge to Hollywood artifice in some of the film’s more artificial techniques to avoid the unusual camera angels who revels the ceiling of sets and etc but in Citizen Kane you overcome this problem by extending fabric over sets, creating â€Å"ceiling† that were translucent and sound permeable. In my view Camera is

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Men are Becoming More Evil Essay Example for Free

Men are Becoming More Evil Essay I believe that in the last couple of decades man is becoming more evil. Many blame the media. Then there are those who blame the increasing number of dysfunctional family and the weakening relationship between parents and children. Whatever the cause, one thing is clear, and that is men are becoming more cruel, violent, inhuman and evil. Global crime rate, for example, has shown that all countries around the world have steady increase in robbery, homicide and other crimes. The total recorded crime trends have therefore shown similar steady increase in the last 50 decades. This was reported by the United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems. Juvenile delinquency is also increasing as reported by World Youth Report, 2003. In fact, in many Western European countries, from the 80s to the 90s, statistics show that there is a significant increase in juvenile delinquency rate from 50% to 100%. Moreover, although delinquency is universal, study has shown that there are different contributing factors to delinquency among different regions. For example, in Africa, the main cause is poverty, unemployment and malnutrition. In Asian countries, it is an urban phenomenon. In some countries, especially those in the Golden Triangle region, children are used by the drug industry, thereby becoming addicts themselves. Also in this region, children are victimized by human trafficking. In Latin America, it is homelessness and poverty. Arab world, it is urbanization for the rich countries and socioeconomic difficulties for the developing ones. While in many industrialized countries, such as the US, the main factor is increase in consumer goods. What this shows is that across the globe and with different factors, delinquency is becoming a way of life for many children. Gone are the days when children are innocent. Today they grow up in a world of violence, injustice and inhumanity that they themselves become violent, cruel and evil. Their crimes can be considered most heinous. In the last fifteen years school shootings is becoming more common. Then there are children who are not even in their teens commit senseless and extremely cruel crimes, such as Jon Venables and  Robert Thompson who stole, tortured and murdered a two year old boy. Whether this is caused by the environment, the media or family upbringing, it is clear that men are therefore becoming more evil. Becoming evil of course is a process as it does not happen overnight. It means that there is hope yet for the future generations. Societies might change and evil men might repent and turn their backs on their evil ways. But until that day comes, we see man becoming more evil with each passing day.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Illegal Downloading Essay

Illegal Downloading Essay Illegal download of music can be best defined as use of free sharing programs such as LimeWire, Bit Torrent, Ares and E-mule to share or obtain copyrighted music or music software without due permission from the copyright holder. From the article, we can deduce and comfortably argue that the illegal download of music is indeed harmful and should be banned and discouraged at all cost. For one, illegal download of music denies musicians the right to profits and hence prevent them from earning their living. It also kills their morale when taken to the fact that it degrades and devalues their products i.e. the music files. On the argument that artists make more money from concerts, this needs to be explicitly clarified, because download of music can actually bring an artist more money than concert appearances. Take a scenario for instance where a musician has a hit song all over the globe which is all over the internet and media outlets. This will translate to more demand, and they will get invited to numerous shows and events all over the world. Whereas anyone in any place around the globe can download the particular song or other songs by the artist no matter the time of the day. The artist himself is limited in the number of shows or concerts he or she can attend hence he might end up making more money from this than actual concerts which requires his physical appearance. The value of musical compact discs (CDs) has been viewed by some as ridiculously high, as the article reports. It will be important to understand this vital point that when a consumer really needs and wants a certain product and appreciates its value the price notwithstanding. (Aksomitis, 2007) He or she would most definitely go out of the way to purchase it this is no different when it comes to musical CD sales. If the notion that downloading of music illegally is harmless and does not really cost the artist much should be dispelled and the following will act to disabuse any such thoughts in any potential illegal music downloader. Jupiter research -a UK based research firm published a report in 2009 titled the analysis of the European online music marketing development and assessment of future opportunities. The report came up with a final conclusion that illegal music downloaders were free loaders who had little or no will /ability to pay for music. This coupled with the fact that the United Kingdom trade value of the domestic music sales had fallen to a sobering twenty five per cent in the last decade is a clear indication of the ills of illegal music download. Another study done in Netherlands by a group called TNO/SEO/IVIR in 2009 established a direct link between a drop in music sales and downloading over the internet: ups and downs-economic and cultural effects of file sharing on music, films and games. The bottom line facts and figures all point out illegal music downloading over the internet, as one of the major culprits that has led to decline in revenue and sales in the music industry worldwide. This is because a seemingly harmless action of downloading a music file over the internet has caused a wide destructive ripple effect in the industry affecting more than one individual /musician. There exist many key industry players who are negatively affected by this. The music producer for one, music managers, record label employees, music promoters, disc jockeys (DJ) and other professionals. Who include video producers, dancers, event organizers and other affiliated industry players together with thousands if not millions of employees earning a living from music and music related products. When music CD sales drops due to illegal download of music, publishers naturally feel the pinch from losses incurred. Drop in album sales lead to firing and lying off of employees by record labels and music production houses. (Noah, 2011) The musician at the end of the line is cheated off their rightful earning by the same illegal downloading. It will be of great importance to note that music CDs are on their way to becoming obsolete and outdated. Therefore soft copy downloading is becoming a more and more preferred mode of music and music software Access Avenue by fans worldwide. This means music downloads are in the future going to be perhaps the only way a part from performances and product endorsements that a musician can earn a living and make sales from his/her music. All this is a clear pointer that illegal music download is indeed harmful and musicians therefore should declare an out and out war against these offenders. Who exhibits dishonest, unscrupulous, unethical and selfish practice which amounts to mass theft of intellectual property and copyright infringement not to mention theft. It is important that there exist legal and recognized channels for music downloading where there is a good and reliable system of music downloading. This is because there would be an important source of data whereby an artist can keep tract and do a self-evaluation of his/her music progress. Other key players such as producers and music promoters would also find this handy and useful in keeping tract if their artist progress in development while keeping tabs on sales and marketing data .Ranking and artist valuing can also be easily timelines and tracked down to minute details. The government would also heavily benefit from the same when it comes to the crucial issue of taxation and revenue collection. Where there is a legal and recognized mode of music download, tax deductions and revenue payment can be smoothly and flawlessly carried out which in turn will help the government to be able to protect the musicians and assure them of continued earning from their music. This will in turn lead to high morale in the musician who will continue churning out more quality and standard music for the fans to enjoy. It is however important to take in to consideration the issue of music previews where potential downloads review and sample music before downloading. The article argue that if allowed access to sampling and previewing of music prior to online purchase, the potential customers will not value the illegally downloaded music. Resulting, into temporally use of files then deleting without actually engaging in the actual purchase of the song. There should be such a platform streamlined such as in the case of movie trailers where a sneak preview of the song is availed without unnecessarily exposing much or the whole song to potential buyers. A small part of the song such as the chorus should be coded into the system with an expiry security lock for temporal use. We must keep in psyche that prior to one goes to download a song there must have been motivators and factors that lead to his or her action. (Johnson Broida, 2002) By this, we can take into account music previews and reviews in various contemporary music shows in radio and television programs. Also written music reviews by entertainment writers and critics who are well informed about music of various genres and types they report for therefore the downloader has a pretty good idea what he/she is going to download. Up to that point all will agree that illegal download of music does more harm than good. Therefore should be severely reprimanded and allow for musicians effort to be duly recognized and appreciated when protecting and appreciating copyright and intellectual property of the artist. Musicians should come out vocally and in numbers to condemn and fight this detestable vice. This can be best done by the formation of strong reliable and powerful artist associations and bodies which will have the mandate and tasks of monitoring and ensuring music download is done legally and they benefit from the same. There is a need for existence of independent and cooperate copyright agent monitors. Who will work closely for or with the government music bodies, record labels, music distribution companies media houses. (Johnson Broida, 2002) Additionally, music promoters and online marketers of music together with the website owners to ensure efficient tracking of music download. Enabling to keep the actions in the right track and eliminate illegal music downloading or keep it to a bare minimum. The government needs to step in the fight against illegal music downloads by setting up agencies and departments to monitor and control the same. Legal actions should be taken against those found engaging in illegal music download and heavy fines and penalties imposed on the culprits to punish them. Get legal settlements to compensate the musicians and deter and discourage other potential illegal music down-loaders. There should be also financial implications for any individual, company, group or institution whose members engage in this act with full knowledge of the relevant authorities. Disciplinary actions therefore should be taken against students in educational institutions where this practice is done at an alarming rate, mostly with impunity since the perpetrators hide under the veil of the majority of numbers and institutional cover. CONCLUSION In a nutshell, the long and short of it is that if allowed to continue, illegal music download will continue hurting musicians and also the perpetrators when stun action is taken against them. The eventual effect is the ruining of the music industry and killing of dreams, new talents and music. The question is if one loves music so much, why not go out and legally purchase it?

Friday, September 20, 2019

Advice on How to Sell Your Websites :: Sell Websites Buy Websites

Advice on How to Sell Your Websites Reprinted with permission of VotanWeb.com If you are serious about selling your website then you will need to spruce up your financial statements, budgets, and business plans. Running your website as if you were preparing to sell it will improve your management practices and increase the value of your website. If you receive an offer that you can't refuse, being prepared will put you in a great position to close a deal quickly. In researching my book, â€Å"How to Sell Your Website for Top Dollar†, I interviewed over 200 entrepreneurs who had sold their websites. Some issues came up repeatedly that have little to do with the mechanics of getting your website ready to sell but that instead require you to do some soul-searching. What do you want for yourself--in the future? How much of your self-esteem is tied up with owning and running your website? What will you do next? Thinking through the implications of a sale for you and your family will go a long way toward helping you select the sort of buyer you'd be most comfortable with. There are two basic types of buyers, financial and strategic. Financial buyers make up an enormous segment of the market. They look for websites they can buy using debt financing for 50% to 75% of the price, and that have sufficient cash flow to service that debt. With few exceptions they value a website by using a multiple of four to six times earnings before interest and taxes (after making adjustments for expenses that would change for a new owner). There are disadvantages to selling to a financial buyer: there are no synergies--such as partnerships with complementary websites. There will certainly be pressures to increase the cash flow because of the added debt. Financial buyers are in business to make deals, so they may overlook some weaknesses. They often leave day-to-day website operations unchanged, but they buy with a view to selling, and they don’t give a damn about your vision for the future of the website. Strategic buyers expect synergies with their other websites. Because of these synergies, they can afford to pay a premium, but they may not need to because they already have an intimate knowledge of the market. They may know your websites strengths and weaknesses better than you do. Therefore, strategic buyers offering premium prices are in short supply.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Essay on Freedom in Chopin’s Story of an Hour and Gilman’s Turned

Freedom in Chopin’s Story of an Hour and Gilman’s Turned  Ã‚     In â€Å"Turned,† by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and â€Å"The Story of an Hour,† by Kate Chopin, two female protagonists gradually reject and overcome their socially constructed and internalized female consciousness’. These changes of heart happen when horrific events that relate to both the characters’ husbands occur. The women are then forced to define themselves as individuals rather than relying on their mates, their families, and their households to give them meaning. Their life-changing realizations are shown through the environments surrounding them and through suggestive water images. In these pieces, the female mind and thought process is dissected to show how these women discover their complex and somewhat hypocritical social positions. Both protagonists are finally able to comprehend the weight of their roles as wives and as women in their confining societies. Through their new found understanding, they are forced to see the idle and petty li ves they have been living to attain the other’s acceptance. In effect, the characters attempt to renounce their oppressed female roles and adopt lifestyles of their own.   Ã‚  Ã‚   The â€Å"turns† that transpire in these feminist works are suggested in the environment that the females live in. Their surroundings not only imply a change of lifestyle, but indicate a shift in the tone of the stories. Kate Chopin’s â€Å"The Story of an Hour† opens with Mrs. Mallard receiving word of her husband’s death through her sister. With the tragic news hovering inside her head, Mrs. Mallard withdraws up to her room to be alone. Her room becomes a retreat to her; she is able to peer down on society without participating in it as well as contemplate her n... ... of femininity and of marriage. Achieving independence, although it may result in one’s death or may cause one to be an outcast in society, becomes the ultimate objective of Mrs. Mallard and Mrs. Marroner.    Works Cited and Consulted Chopin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour." In Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Ann Charters and Samuel Charters, Eds. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997. Martin, Wendy, ed. "Introduction." New Essays on The Story of an Hour. New York, NY: Cambridge UP, 1998.    Beer, Janet. Kate Chopin, Edith Wharton, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Studies in Short Fiction. NY: St. Martin's P, 1997. Knight, Denise D. Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Study of the Short Fiction. Boston: Twayne, 1997. Lane, Ann J. To Herland and Beyond: The Life and Work of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. NY: Pantheon Books, 1990.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Existentialism, Beloved, and The Bluest Eye Essay -- comparison compar

Existentialism, Beloved, and The Bluest Eye  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Toni Morrison has written several novels, many of which show the influence of existentialist thinking; however, Beloved and The Bluest Eye both strongly illustrate all of the major existential themes. Beloved is a novel about a woman, Sethe, who escapes from slavery with her children. She is haunted both physically and psychologically by her experience, as evidenced by the scars she carries on her back from a severe beating, and the scars she carries in her mind from the horrible treatment she suffered. A few weeks after her escape, Sethe's owner hunted her down to reclaim her as his property. Under the fear of capture, Sethe decided that for her children, death would be better than slavery. She killed her second-to-the-youngest child before she was stopped. Beloved is the story of Sethe, and how she must live with the ramifications of her terrible, necessary decision to kill her baby girl.    The Bluest Eye is a similarly haunting novel. It is the story of Pecola, a little ugly black girl trying to grow up in rural Ohio during the 1940's. She is despised by white society because she is ugly, black and female, and because she is the antithesis of all that white western culture idolizes: white skin, blond hair, and blue eyes. On a disastrous parallel, Pecola is also despised by black society: the society whose support she needs desperately to counter white negativity towards her. Instead of receiving that life-giving support, Pecola is regarded as an ugly, passive, pitiful girl. Her mother, herself twisted by the ideals of white society, loves a young, white, blond child she cares for more than her own daughter. Her father loved her so much, he r... ...son." Michigan: Gale Research Inc., 1994. 215-273. Eiermann, Katharena. "Themes of Existentialism." [http://members.aol.com/KatharenaE/private/ Philo/Existentialism/extheme.html]. 1996. 16 March 1997. "Existentialism" [http://www.sound.net/~melingl/existme.html] (16 March 1997) Morrison, Toni. Beloved. New York, New York: Plume, 1988. ---. The Bluest Eye. New York, New York: Plume, 1994. Sartre, Jean-Paul. Literature & Existentialism. New York, New York: Carol Publishing Group, 1994. Steiner, Wendy. "The Clearest Eye." Draper 239. Stone, Joanna. "Morrison proves to be moving and eloquent." The Tech, April 24, 1992: 11. Massachusetts. America OnLine. [http://the-tech.mit.edu/V112/N22/morrison.22a.html]. Online. 6 March 1997. Trosky, Susan, M., ed. Contemporary Authors. Michigan: Gale Research Inc., 1994. 319-328   

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Literacy and Young People Essay

The opportunity to apply for a specialist responsibility in supporting literacy development has arisen in your educational environment. For your interview you have been asked to prepare information to show that you can: Literacy means the ability to read and write. Only recently has the word ‘literacy’ been applied as the definitive term for reading and writing, mostly since the introduction of the National Literacy Strategy in schools. The skills of reading and writing complement each other and develop together, it therefore makes sense to use the term ‘literacy’. Reading and writing are forms of communication based on the spoken language. Effective speaking and listening skills are essential in order to develop literacy skills. The progression of literacy skills is a vital aspect of development and learning. Without the ability to read, write and listen children and young people may not be able to function effectively in school, college, university or at work or communicate with others about their ideas and participate fully and safely in the community. Literacy enables children and young people to express themselves creatively and productively. The majority of jobs and careers rely on an element of basic literacy (and numeracy) skills. Literacy is required in our everyday lives, to keep us safe by being able to read signs and follow instructions, read directions, reading newspapers, recipes, food labels, dealing with household finances. Literacy also enables us to progress with technology by being able use computers competently, surfing the internet and being able to read and write emails. As the heart of all learning lies the two key skills, literacy and numeracy. Literacy is possibly the more important of both skills as children and young people need literacy in order to access further curriculum areas, e.g in order to approach a numeracy problem, the question needs to be read and  understood before the answer can begin to be found. The development of literacy is important from an early age for all children and young people. As Teaching Assistants it is likely that we will be supporting children and young people with communication difficulties or other Special Educational Needs which could have an impact on their literacy skills, a situation may also arise where English is not the first language. It is important that children and young people are encouraged to explore the way the English language works, e.g phonics for vocabulary, reading, writing and spelling. This will enable children and young people to gain knowledge to be able to read, write and spell confidently. The learning objectives are associated to 12 strands in literacy to demonstrate progression in each strand. The strands are as follows:- Speak and listen for a wide range of purposes in different contexts 1. Speaking 2. Listening and responding 3. Group discussion and interaction 4. Drama Read and write for a range of purposes on paper and on screen 5. Word recognition: decoding (reading) and encoding (spelling) 6. Word Structure and spelling 7. Understanding and interpreting texts 8. Engaging and responding to texts 9. Creating and shaping texts 10. Text structure and organisation 11. Sentence structure and punctuation 12. Presentation Within my setting we aim to encourage children and young people to be able read and write with confidence, fluency and understanding, to be able to orchestrate a full range of reading cues (phonic, graphic, syntactic, contextual) to monitor their read and be able to correct their own mistakes. To understand the sound and spelling system and use this to read and spell accurately, have fluent, legible and cursive handwriting. To have an interest in words and their meanings and a growing vocabulary. To know, understand and be able to write a number of genres in fiction and poetry,  understand and be familiar with some of the ways in which narratives are structured through basic literacy ideas of setting, character and plot. The ability to understand, use and be able to write a range of non-fiction texts, plan, draft, revise and edit their own writing, have a suitable technical vocabulary through which to understand and discuss their reading and writing. Children are encouraged to be interested in books, read with enjoyment and evaluate and justify their preferences. Develop their own powers of imagination, inventiveness and critical awareness through reading and writing. In the Foundation Stage (Nursery and Reception) – Children and young people should be given the opportunity to speak, listen and represent ideas in their activities. Use communication, language and English in every part of the curriculum and to become immersed in an environment rich in print and possibilities for communication. All Key Stage 1 (Years 1 and 2) – Children and young people should learn to speak confidently and listen to what others have to say. They should begin to read and write independently (using phonic knowledge) and with enthusiasm. They should be using language to explore their own experiences and imaginary words. All Key Stage 2 (Years 3-6) – Children and young people should learn to change the way they speak and write to s uit appropriate situations, purposes and audiences. They should read a range of texts and respond to different layers of meaning in them. They should explore the use of language in literary and non-literary texts and learn how the structure of language works. Intervention groups are offered in speaking, reading, writing and listening to those children and young people who are under-attaining and booster groups for the more able. Where the pupils performance is significantly below average we will seek specialist provision such as speech therapy, EAL programmes and reading recovery will be accessed as needed. In Key stages 1 and 2, English sessions use the National Strategy unit plans (our own versions) focusing on shared reading, shared and guided writing and producing sustained outcomes. Further lessons are also used for focused activities in phonics, guided reading and comprehension. In Key Stage 1 there is a daily phonics session, daily guided reading and English lesson. There is one discrete handwriting session each week. In additi on to this, there is also a slot used for the development of speaking and listening and the class story. In lower Key Stage 2 there is also a daily phonics session, four guided reading sessions and a daily  English lesson. There is one discrete handwriting session every fortnight. Additionally there is also a slot used for the development of speaking and listening and the class story. In upper Key Stage 2 there is a daily phonics/spelling session, four guided reading sessions and a daily English lesson. There is one discrete handwriting session every fortnight. Additional there is a slot used for the development of speaking and listening and the class story. The monitoring and evaluation of the English policy is the responsibility of the English co-ordinator who is responsible to the head teacher and the governors for the development of English throughout the school. This is to be achieved in a variety of ways: Regular discussions with staff concerning the progress of groups and individuals Involvement in long and medium term planning across the school in English Regular classroom observation and working alongside colleagues to help identify strengths and weaknesses, to provide support to individual staff where appropriate Regular monitoring of resources, planning and children’s work Reviewing of assessment outcomes and data to evaluate the quality of learning in English throughout the school. Checking that within a key stage there is coverage of the full English curriculum in line with national curriculum requirements, the early learning goals and current National Primary Framework objectives (where used) Checking that appropriate opportunities to raise multicultural and gender issues are created and taken Ensure that the time spent on the teaching of English is meeting our pupils needs  Literacy Lessons are the same time each day, afte r morning break time. They are broken down into phonics and spelling, guided reading and English. The lesson starts at 10.45 and finishes at 12.30pm. The children start by gathering on the carpet area to be given an overview of what is happening in the day’s lesson. As a Teaching Assistant a discussion would have taken place with the Class Teacher prior to the lesson taking place to establish the lesson plan and what is expected of you for the lesson. Some Teaching Assistants may have been involved with elements of planning a lesson and able to give their own ideas as to how is the best way to carry out activities. It may be that you work with a designated group of children who have development issues and require more attention. It is important that  the Teaching Assistant works together with the class teach to monitor the progress of pupils in all areas of literacy development. This will usually ensure that the children and young people are focused and able to meet the learning objectives. Some pupils will require more encouragement to participate than others through the use of praise and feedback, whilst identifying any concerns or problems they may have. Monitoring of the children and young people also involves the relaying of information to the Class Teacher in respect of learning objectives and feedback as to how the tasks were managed and how to achieve their goals going forwards. We also carry out intervention activities in my setting where a group of children are taken out of the lesson by a Teaching Assistant to carry out some additional literacy activities to concentrate on tasks such as sounds of letter groups, reading sessions and basic spellings to help improve their literacy development. There are also groups of children who are taken out of lessons 3 times a week to carry out additional reading activities to help improve their reading skills. In our classrooms, we also use a ‘working wall display’ to show the key learning objectives for the terms activities and the pupils are able to use this to assist with their learning independently. Within my setting we also have a reading partners lesson on a Thursday morning where year groups visit other class rooms and read with each other, e.g Year 4 read with reception, Year 3 read with year 1 and year 2 with year 5. This gives children and young people to the chance to gain confidence in reading and speaking in front of other children who are of a different age and more developed. Bibliography Textbooks: Textbooks: Burnham,L, Baker,B (2010) Level 3 Diploma Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools (Primary). Harlow. Heinemann part of Pearson Burnham,L(2002) Brilliant Teaching Assistant. Prentice Hall Kamen, T (2008) 2nd Edition Teaching Assistants Handbook NVQ & SVQ Levels 2 & 3. Maidstone. Hodder Education Primary School Literacy Curriculum Policy overview

Monday, September 16, 2019

Romantic or Classical

Matthew Arnold’s â€Å"The Function of Criticism at the Present Time† is a criticism in itself of what great literary artists could have done and what literature could have become. In depth, Arnold’s work discusses his critical and personal perspectives on the role of criticism in consequentially transforming not only literature but also the landscape of society positively and constructively as well.Furthermore, Arnold sought to strengthen his arguments on the matter and present a rebuttal of the various criticisms put forth against his ideas and points of view, and prove that criticisms are of great importance in fuelling creativity and fostering the advancement of literature. However, Arnold implicitly distinguished differences between the positive and constructive types of criticism as compared to the off-putting and unconstructive nature of some criticism.Arnold argued that â€Å"a critic may with advantage seize an occasion for trying his own conscience, an d for asking himself of what real service, at any given moment, the practice of criticism either is or may be made to his own mind and spirit, and to the minds and spirits of others. † (pp. 414) Arnold’s arguments on the ideal nature of critics formulated his perspectives on how and when criticisms may be considered valuable.Under the pretexts of Arnold’s arguments, we realize that unless criticisms are aimed towards the greater good – that is, to present censures and critiques for the purpose of fuelling creativity, fostering change and advancement, and ultimately to affect a change that would positively and constructively change the lives of man and the landscape of society – they are deemed ineffectual or inadequate. Arnold also discussed creativity under the context of developing literature.Arnold said, â€Å"It is undeniable that the exercise of a creative power, that a free creative activity, is the highest function of man; it is proved to be so by man’s finding in it his true happiness. † (pp. 414) The multifaceted structure of the human mind allows man to express creativity in so many ways and create different outcomes out of it, such as the expression of creativity through developing criticisms and then consequently formulating good literature.The excerpt from Arnold’s â€Å"Sweetness and Light,† he explored the dynamics of culture based on the motivations that constitute a part of its bases or foundations. Arnold said, â€Å"Culture is then properly described not as having its origin in curiosity, but as having its origin in the love of perfection; it is a study of perfection. It moves by the force†¦ but also of the moral and social passion for doing good. † (pp.427-248) Since Arnold has framed the origins of culture not on mere curiosity, but on man’s desire to seek and create perfection, he said that culture then serves a greater purpose to creative positive and constr uctive change, accomplish human needs, and foster the convalescence of human nature. By and large, the arguments of Arnold meet the standards and dynamics of romantic aesthetics and poetry. Based on Wellek’s discussions on the Classical and Romantic movements, classical poetry was defined as â€Å"poetry for the dead† while romantic poetry was defined as â€Å"poetry for the living.† (pp. 259) The primary difference between the Classical and Romantic movements that set the distinction between the nature of classical and romantic poetry lies in the major themes that constitute the dynamics of each style. Wellek said, â€Å"Ancient religion and the life are past and gone, and hence classical, while for instance, America, discovered in modern times, is romantic. † (pp. 260) Since Arnold’s perspectives and arguments were related to the development of the present time, the society, and expansion of human nature, his views on poetry are romantic in natur e.2. Abram’s Theories of Art Abrams’ theories on art were primarily tied to the modernist perspective of criticism. In the discussion on the â€Å"Orientation of Critical Theories,† which were attributed to art, the modernist perspective of viewing, realizing the significance, and interpreting art focused on a single perspective, and that is of the artist, and not on the many factors that exist in art’s external environment that contribute criticism and interpretations to it.The aesthetic theory, as Abrams defined, â€Å"displays its full measure of rhetoric and logomachy which seem and inseparable part of man’s discourse about all things that really matter†¦ Its aim, however, is not to establish correlations between facts which will enable us to predict the future by reference to the past, but to establish principles enabling us to justify, order, and clarify our interpretation and appraisal of the aesthetic facts themselves. † (pp.2) Abrams’ definition of the aesthetic theory of viewing art leads us to understand that interpreting and labeling meanings on pieces of art should be based on established principles of aesthetics. On the other hand, the critical theory of viewing art â€Å"has its own kind of validity†¦ Such a criterion will, of course, justify not one, but a number of valid theories, all in their several ways of self-consistent, applicable, and relatively adequate to the range of aesthetic phenomena. † (pp.3) If the aesthetic theory of poetry lies in the principles and nature of aesthetics as seen on the perspective of the artist, the critical theory of viewing art is dependent on the existence of standards and decisive factors, which literally and actually define the features that make up art and the pennants that define aesthetics. Another theory of art criticism discussed by Abrams is the view of art within four elements or coordinates – the universe, the work, the artist , and the audience.In this theory, the interpretations of art are oriented in the perspectives of one of the factors within the external environment of art. The pragmatic theory, as opposed to the aesthetic and critical theories of viewing art sees art as a vehicle for the artist’s accomplishment of a higher goal or objective. Art, in this case, becomes a tool utilized to achieve something meaningful to the artist, or even the factors that constitute art’s external environment.If the pragmatic theory sees art as an instrument to do something, the expressive theory on the other hand, sees art as a vehicle to express the artist’s thoughts and emotions. Art, in this case, is personal that results from the artist’s thoughts and emotion translated to a concrete piece of art. Another theory defined by Abrams is the objective theory of viewing art. This particular theory focuses on the facts and standards of art.The act of viewing art is by looking at the art in itself, and not considering the thoughts and perspectives contributed by the factors existing in its external environment. Art, in this case, is seen and interpreted as is. Based on the definitions of Abrams of the different theories of viewing art, Eliot’s poetry subscribes the orientation of perspectives and interpretations of art to the four factors elements of coordinates of art, specifically the perspectives and interpretations of the audience, while Hulme’s poetry subscribes to the expressive and pragmatic theories of art criticism.Eliot himself defined the views and perspectives of art as something that should be personal and experienced by the audience, that is because the audience â€Å"enjoy the poetry† and not because the audience â€Å"acquired the scholarship† to appreciate art. (Scofield, pp. 1) Hulme’s poetry, on the other hand, was defined as an instrument to express language that is real, affecting or appealing to human emotions. (Comentale & Gasiorek, pp. 98) 3. Abram’s Theories in Virginia Woolf’s â€Å"Modern Fiction†Virginia Woolf’s â€Å"Modern Fiction† is an exploration of the features of art and literature from the past until present time, which sets apart classical art and literature and the modern representations of art and literature. Woolf discussed the two arguments on the difference between the concrete art and literature materials that constitute the classical and modernist perspectives, but ultimately admired the simplicity yet timelessness of classical works on art and literature.Woolf said, that the works of classical artists or writers â€Å"certainly have a strange air of simplicity† but were representations of â€Å"accomplishments that we can scarcely refrain from whispering that the fight was not so fierce for them as for us† considering the complexity and the demands of writing in our modern world. (Woolf) Certainly, there is something a bout the features of the classical perspectives on art and literature that allow them to withstand the passage of time and modernity, that is â€Å"the flesh of their work has a living, breathing, everyday imperfection which bids us take liberties with it we choose.† (Woolf) Woolf continues to set the distinction between the classical and modern literature in order to construct the framework of the foundations of modern literature that makes it incomparable to the eminence and distinction awarded to classical arts and literature. However, Woolf ascertained one thing, and that is, the dynamics and position of modern literature is still uncertain as compared to the solid standing of classical literature.After all, Woolf said, â€Å"We only know that certain gratitudes and hostilities inspire us, that certain paths seem to lead to fertile land, others to the dust and the desert, and of this perhaps it may be worthwhile to attempt some account. † (â€Å"Modern Fictionâ₠¬ ) By this, Woolf meant that art and literature is something unprompted and natural, which are borne out of the creativity of artists or literary writers. At this point, the foundations of modern literature have been presented as something that is compliant and accommodating to the artist or literary writer.While on the other hand, classical art and literature remains as forceful and influential because it talks about the realities of life. This feature or characteristic of classical art and literature seem to blur the standing or position of modern art and literature because its dynamics cannot be contained in a single word of definition due to its compliance to various factors, and that is on the varying perspectives of modern artists and writers. Woolf said, â€Å"this may be, the problem before the novelist at present, as we suppose it to have been in the past, is to contrive means of being free to set down what he chooses.He has to have the courage to say that what interests him is not longer ‘this’ but ‘that’: out of ‘that’ alone must he construct his work. † (â€Å"Modern Fiction†) In simpler terms, the desire and inclination of modern artists and literary writers to present something that deviates from established classical arts and literature become the problems and difficulties that challenge their courage and capability to present artistic and literary works set against the backdrop of our modern world.Based on the thoughts and points of view discussed by Woolf in â€Å"Modern Fiction,† we realize that it subscribes to the expressive theory and the coordinates of art criticism, specifically on the varying perspectives of art and literature from the viewpoint of the artist, the audience, and society or the world. Woolf has comprehensively discussed how modern literature constitutes the individual and unique expression of the artist or the writer, according to his personal perspectives and interest that deviate from established standards from the classical movement.4. Modernism The emergence of modernism as a trend in arts and literature, which consequently influenced the changes in the cultural and aesthetic identities in the West, was as Lewis put it, â€Å"has been gradual and imperceptible. † (â€Å"De Descriptione Temporum†) However, as a means to discuss how the world has suddenly witnessed the inception of modernist perspectives, Lewis explored the fusion between the Medieval and Renaissance movements that have brought about changes in the culture and aesthetic identities of society as a whole.Lewis said that although the force and influence of modernism was unnoticed by many, it may be felt or realized by contrasting society’s culture and aesthetic identities with the culture and aesthetic identities of the past. Lewis continues to reiterate that the changes and transformations that we see at present time were borne out of the continuous e volution of the past. Therefore, it was safe for Lewis to say that our culture and aesthetic identities at present time were a fusion between the Medieval and Renaissance movements that evolved and continually changed through the passage of time.As Lewis said, â€Å"nothing is quite new; it was always somehow anticipated or prepared for. † (â€Å"De Descriptione Temporum†) From Lewis’ discussions, we understand that between the periods of time as defined by the author, that is in a metaphorical sense â€Å"Between Jane Austen and us, but not between her and Shakespeare, Chaucer, Alfred, Virgil, or the Pharaohs, comes the birth of the machines.† (â€Å"De Descriptione Temporum†) I believe that beyond Lewis’ thoughts and perspectives on the matter, the persistent creativity and conscious and curious nature of human beings have progressively influenced the shift in the culture and aesthetic identity in the West. In Scott’s book â€Å"Re figuring Modernism: Postmodern Feminist Readings of Woolf, West, and Barnes,† the author’s definition of modernism was similar to Lewis’ discussions on how the continuous evolution of culture and aesthetic identities through the passage of time have been the precursor to modernism.According to Scott, the inception of modernism is similar to a spider web. â€Å"The spider’s actions of repeatedly attaching, launching out into the unknown, and landing for the next anchoring point suggests agency, poly valence, and the ability to make selective use of existing structures, or to seek new ones – not all of them man-made. † (Scott, pp. xv) What Scott meant was that growth and development is a natural part of life. Man is continually learning, which consequently influences the introduction of new theories and ideas that are integrated into man’s way of life and nature.Therefore, the changes in culture and aesthetic identities are brought about the desire of man to make something more out of art and his creativity. This same inclination of human nature to change and look to transform culture and aesthetic identities have been the same reason for the formation of different periods in time, from the Medieval to the Renaissance in the West, and so on. Lewis said, â€Å"our assumption that everything is provisional and soon to be superseded, that the attainment of goods we have never yet had, rather than the defence and conservation of those we have already, is the cardinal business of life.† (â€Å"De Descriptione Temporum†) The transformation of the Old Western Culture and aesthetic identities during that period of time to modernism, may then be defined as a fusion of man’s desire to reveal or express change that is meant to overpower the existing cultural, social, and political landscape of society during that time to develop a more progressive and vanguard culture and aesthetic identity that sets itse lf as a better society than the past.Works Cited Comentale, Edward P. & Gasiorek, Andrzej. T. E. Hulme and the Question of Modernism. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. , 2006. Lewis, C. S. â€Å"De Descriptione Temporum, an Inaugural Lecture from The Chair of Mediaeval and Renaissance Literature in Cambridge University, 1954. † In C. S. Lewis, They Asked for a Paper. London, Geoffrey Bles, 1962, pp. 9-25. Retrieved from The University of Cincinnati. 06 May 2009. Scofield, Martin. T. S. Eliot: The Poems. Cambridge University Press, 1988. Scott, Bonnie Kim. Refiguring Modernism: Postmodern Feminist Readings of Woolf, West, and Barnes. Indiana University Press, 1995. Wellek, Rene. A History of Modern Criticism 1750-1950. CUP Archive, 1981. Woolf, Virginia. (2004). Modern Fiction. Retrieved from [email  protected] 06 May 2009.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Women in Leadership Roles

This report examines the research on gender equity in educational leadership published since 1997until 2010. Even though women attaining jobs in school leadership has increased, women still do not fill administrative positions in comparison to men. The majority of research related to women and leadership examines the barriers women face in entering or moving up in the leadership hierarchy. Looking at the differences and similarities in how men and women take on and exercise leadership roles, the authors of the articles suggest ideas based on biological, psychological and sociological theories that stress gender difference. The article, â€Å"Re-thinking educational leadership: exploring the impact of cultural and belief systems† written by Shah, discusses how education and educational leadership theories and practices are influenced by culture and belief systems; with a focus on gender in Muslim societies. The first priority of Muslim women was to look after their family; therefore, before taking on any professional responsibility they had to ensure that no decisions or actions brought shame to their family or extended families. According to Shah, the Muslim women who participated in leadership positions often felt powerless because their decisions and actions were regularly scrutinized by men. The second article, â€Å"Gender Differences Among New Recruits to School Administration: Cautionary Footnotes to an Optimistic Tale† written by Riehl and Byrd discusses the factors affecting leadership among men and women in elementary and secondary education. Even though the women were as highly educated as the men, the men often were given many more opportunities. Women were still seen as displaying nurturing characteristics in their leadership style. The article also discusses women’s leadership aspirations to that of their male counterparts. The third article, â€Å"School leadership, sex and gender: welcome to difference† written by Kruger brings into light the biological differences in genetic make up of men and women. It discusses how different hormones and brain structure are the reasons for differences in behaviour and personality among men and women, which is considered a deciding factor in their leadership styles. Kruger also examines how the environment plays an important role in the realization of gender differences in leadership. The last article, â€Å"Gender and educational Leadership in England: a comparison of secondary headteachers’ views over time† written by Coleman discusses the expectations of women and men as principals in England in the 1990`s and in 2004. The article focuses on women with regards to work and personal life. Coleman reports that women have larger roles at work and at home, whereas men generally concern themselves with work only. Notably, women were seen as inferior so they adopted male work ethics. The results of Coleman’s studies are similar to those in other countries. It was very interesting to review the articles I chose to better understand the ways that educational leadership is perceived with respect to gender in the education system. As I continued to review the research, I thought it was of importance to examine the differing leadership styles and barriers, along with the similarities women faced in both western and non-western cultures. Throughout this inquiry I will cite several reasons for the low proportion of women as educational leaders. According to Shah, â€Å"Men and women are conceptually divided into two separate worlds. Home is defined as a woman’s legitimate ideological and physical space, while a man dominates the world outside the home† (p. 31). With the ever-changing society, Muslim women started exploring their options and took more of an active role outside the home. Interestingly, the women who attained positions of leadership worked in the women-only establishments. It was troublesome for a woman to work in a mixed gender environment because their educational decisions went through a male counterpart, regardless of their seniority. Women still held strong beliefs and values with respect to education; similar to western cultures, but the notion of women in a male dominated hierarchy was still considered problematic. I strongly believe that family and home responsibilities are still more likely to affect the career paths of women than of men today as they pursue administrative positions. Riehl and Byrd also believe that gender plays a major factor in the career development process to the degree that men and women encounter different circumstances, act differently, and/or experience different outcomes. The theoretical explanations that have emerged are as follows: women have not been socialized to aspire to administrative roles or to prepare for them, higher level jobs were designed to exclude women and school leadership is located in male dominance in society overall, not just educational (p. 46). I believe society as a whole is more accepting of these barriers now; however, these issues are still evident, but not as strong. Similar to today, women as teachers and principals were more likely to be found at the elementary level and men at the secondary level. While I do see many women teaching as previously mentioned, it was interesting to hear that men at their level receive more administrative practice, thus leading to senior administrative positions. Also, the amount of education one received didn’t play a huge factor in the hiring process. According to Riel and Bryd even the objective factors such as â€Å"obtaining education or experience increased women’s chances of becoming administrators, they did not bring women’s chances to parity with men’s† (p. 61). Kruger also examines gender differences but relates it to the biological sex differences in school leadership. Women by nature have a more caring, nurturing personality and this influences their administrative styles in a male dominant society. Kruger found that: â€Å"women are stronger educational leaders than their male colleagues. They carry out more educational activities and spend more time on educational matters than men. Women are more focused on instruction and education, on the school goals, they are higher on creating a positive culture and an orderly learning atmosphere, they have a stronger classroom orientation, they reward teachers more often and they create more professional development opportunities for teachers† (p. 62). It appears as though women are strong educational leaders; however, we have learned throughout this course that male and female styles tend to differ even when they occupy the same leadership role. Women, who already face enough resistance and obstacles in a male dominated field, find their leadership styles are judged more harshly by men; however thi s is not the same for the men. According to Kruger, â€Å"Women who display male leadership styles are more negatively judged compared with those who do not, but men with a female leadership style do not seem to be more negatively judged† (p. 164). Despite these factors more women tend to work under male principals then they do women. The reason for this is perhaps do to personality conflicts they may have with the same sexes on ideas of what successful administration entails. Another deciding factor in this is that women tend to be more education rooted and become administrators because out of their desire to improve education, whereas men take on administer roles mainly for the salary. Coleman’s research states that the stereotypical leader is a white, heterosexual, middle class male; therefore, women are often viewed as outsiders in a position of leadership. Coleman identifies various factors effecting women’s likelihood of becoming leaders such as â€Å"discrimination, lack of confidence, hesitation in making career plans, stereotyped into ‘caring’ pastoral roles that were then not seen as fitting them for leadership and there were multiple difficulties for women in combining a family and career† (p. 385). Women’s leadership styles were seen as passive and gentle, while men were stronger and more decisive. In 2004, only half of the women surveyed report experience in discrimination related to advancements due to the likelihood of being labeled a feminist (Coleman, p. 86). Surprisingly, the traditional male style leadership has given way to more feminine styles of leadership. Males have been seen as putting work first over family at all times, which has influenced women to the point of minimizing maternity leave and foregoing their desire to be supportive figures to younger women. Throughout this course we have discussed various effective educational leadership practices. Leaders should be able to adapt their leadership styles according to the situation. Therefore, change is necessary if we want to move ahead in our respective field. The passive, nurturing, education orientated and productive styles depicted by women in these articles are accepted today by both genders in leadership positions. Noteworthy, a strong dominant leader is not always effective or seen as an acceptable style. As a teacher, I often see different leadership styles and can conclude that men and women at times see things differently. In conclusion, the role of women in educational leadership positions continues to evolve; however, there still needs to be work done in order to ensure equality. If one were to look at our current list of administrators in the school board they would notice that there is significant higher ratio of male to female administrators. The females are often placed in small, rural elementary schools or are the vice-principals of secondary schools. I truly believe women will always face barriers while trying to attain leadership positions; however, if we work together, take charge and voice our opinions things may change in the upcoming years.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Homosocial Communication Practices Essay

The issue on mixed or single gender school has raised very many arguments; interestingly there is no profound truth that single-sex schools provide quality education compared to mixed school. But mainly the choice of school depends on where the parent fill their child won’t get good education. The school choice can as well be determined by the individual child’s abilities and weaknesses. Being a parent with a school going girl child, and with much interest to sent her to a public school, my choice would be in a K-12 single-sex school for girls. The reasons behind my decision are that single-sex educational setting often controls student’s academic ability. Girls and boys do better in single-sex schools than in mixed-sex schools (Becker, 2001). Single-sex girl’s schools provide them with confidence and achievement; this is evident since they can take non-traditional courses considered for boys especially advanced mathematics and Physics. The girls have freedom of expression in absence of boys who would make jokes upon what the girls say assuming they where in a mixed class thus learning becomes more comfortable (Forgasz & Leder, 1995). Better expression gives the girls the much desired inside to conceptualize scientific concepts. There is also a better teacher-student relationship because teaches do not compare between different sexes. The single-sex class setting provides and creates very many opportunities that cannot exist in mixed classes, these opportunities result to better understanding of life concepts Teaches in single-sex schools undergo specialized training on how to interact with the students thus a one-to-one specialized handling of issues which would otherwise not be solved in a mixed gender school, test scores and grades improve significantly (Forgasz, & Leder, 1995). The major disadvantage of same sex school for my child is that they lack enough exposure in interacting with opposite sexes; this reduces their level of maturity and even self-discipline. These can result in shy behavior traits since they lack exposure Later in life it becomes a big challenge interacting with men since they lacked the exposure, do not understand their beliefs and way of life from their early ages. Emotional development is as well not fully established in their lives (Haag, 2000). The establishment of single sex schools means that districts must have twice the number of school as opposed to if they had mixed sex schools within the same district. The number of teacher employed is twice even if classes are small and uneconomical teaching. These would result to a nightmare in timetabling, logistical and budget challenges. This could affect the quality of education being offered within the institutions. The required same-sex education skills and extra training provided to the teachers handling these classes may not be provided and the full benefits of the single-sex school may not be accomplished in the long run (Edison & Penelope 1982). In conclusion, though same sex school offer children all the opportunities to effectively explore and maximize their potentials in an open and friendly environment, they mainly equip the young ones with one side of what they need in life which is the academics and offer less of other life knowledge skills required later in live. So as parents we must be considerate on our children whole being without laying much emphasis on the academics and ignoring the social part of life. References Edison T. & Penelope T. (1982). The independent school experience: aspects of the normative environment of single-sex. Journal of Educational Psychology. Becker, J. R. (2001). Single-gender schooling in the public sector in California: Promise and practice. Forgasz, H. J. , & Leder, G. C. (1995). Single-sex mathematics classes: Who benefits? Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. . Haag, P. (2000). K-12 single-sex education: What does the research say? ERIC Digest.