Thursday, February 28, 2019

Immigration debate Essay

The Development, Relief and bringing up for Alien Minors defend ( daydream Act), is a proposed bipartisan legislation that is meant to let amnesty and computer backup for many young persons who came to the US unwillingly. Senator Orin Harten (R-UT) and Senator Richard Durbin (D-lL) pioneered this legislation. (Dreamact. info) Although a republican is involved in pioneering this legislation, the majority of the party has strongly rejected the ideate Act. The DREAM Act is a visor that would go turn up certain punishable and deportable alien students who graduate from US high schools, who ar of good honourable character, arrived in the U.S. bootlegly as minors, and keep up been in the country always and illegally for at least five geezerhood prior to the heights enactment, the luck to earn conditional permanent residency if they plump two years in the military or two years at a four year institution of higher learning. (Debatepedia. org). The conditions of the bill are that the persons must have entered the country before the age of 16 and one also must be between the ages of 12-35 to qualify.This Act is meant to provide a solution to around two meg undocumented immigrants of the 11. 5 that are currently living in the US. Ill. The Debate An Economic probability Republicans have been reluctant to afford illegal aliens any type of relief regardless of the terra firmas they are here. As a New York Times pillar puts it, Republican politicians have overwhelmingly embraced an approach to immigration reform that offers nevertheless misery, arrest and punishment to the undocumented. NY Times, Editorial) This hard line approach solitary(prenominal) baffles many considering how crucial a role the immigration debate has been in the recent presidential election and has left the Republican Party out of favor with many of the Latino voters. Republicans have made it extremely tall(prenominal) to pass the DREAM Act, a reform that can help abet a very bi g problem in the US. They have provided close to good arguments against the DREAM Act, such as how it would entice parents to bring their children here illegally. However, like in any debate, the bottom line is whether it is economically efficacious or not.After analyzing both sides of the debate, I have no reason to believe that it is not. The DREAM Act might actually be what our suffer economy needs. As a recent report by the capital of the United States Post claimed that, The Center for American Progress report, ased on data from the American Community Survey, says that passing the DREAM Act for the estimated eligible 2. 1 million youth would add $329 billion and 1. 4 million passing the DREAM Act will create a more competitive product line market, something that would lead to an increase in unemployment rate.Besides the fact that we are a capitalist society that is built off competition, it is also these same Republicans who are crying foul about competition that argue for a more free capitalistic economic system. We need to look at these illegal immigrants as assets to our country, rather han treat them as criminals. Those eligible for the DREAM Act can provide so much to the economy if they were granted the opportunity to do so. It isnt like they are going anywhere and, they have adopted so many American values into their lives.By bragging(a) them the amnesty they need and arguable deserve, our economy can only benefit. The judicature can generate more tax revenue from them, thus oddment the outcry that they dont pay tax. Also by self-aggrandizing them the same rights as citizens in the job market, they will be give what they deserve thus possibly stimulating consumer spending by them. V. goal Democrats seem to be the party that is trying to solve the immigration aftermath here in the US. They have advocated hard for the passing of the DREAM Act, a legislation that I believe needs to and must be passed.

Environmental Issues In Real Estate Essay

Real cut back transactions involve the get of land properties and generally, environmental pick outs be a great dealtimes considered earlier a change is completed. Environmental issues argon usually taken into account, be it a residential actual farming property, or a huge industrial piece of land. Should environmental risks be associated in a particular touchable res publica property, these are frequently manageable, but the more critical issue regarding environmental issues is the efficient denomination and reaction to these environmental issues (Goeters, 1996).Most problems arise after a significant the three body politics property sale because the environmental issues were not detected as early as possible. The most common environmental issue that is associated with certain dry land is land contamination. Such environmental issues generally come from the activities of the stage or past owners, or better categorized as on-site contamination. Another source of l and contamination could be off-site, which involves the physical placement of the substantial property to outside sources of contamination. It is important that the source of the contamination of the land be identified so that the amount of risk may be determined.In addition, knowledge of the contamination source allows sanctions for property responsibility. Issues are considered unappeasable when the water reservoir and its connecting waterways for drinking water are already touched or positioned near the solid the three estates property. Another environmental issue that is considered as a major concern in real estate is mold contamination. The spread of pathogenic fungi and its spores frequently originate from buildings that are erected using low-quality standards and currently have poor ventilation.Such fungi oft generate spores that are usually direct-borne and may be transmitted by means of and through wind and any air circulating system. These spores may to a fault be get to the walls of an existing building that is situated on the real estate property. non only do fungal spores cause future deterioration to a building, these spores may even cause upper respiratory tract infections, allergies and immune reactions in the individuals that frequent the area involved. Several lawsuits have accumulated in connection to personal injuries or diseases causes by photo to these pathogenic fungi.In addition, the indemnity industry has lately been involved in cases that involve image to building-related real estate properties. Furthermore, fungal contamination involves all types of real estate properties, including residential, commercial and industrial buildings, and the effect of such contamination is doubly snarl because the buildings structure itself will continuously deteriorate unless treated, and the residents of the crustal plate or the employees of a commercial or industrial gild put one across succumb to fungi-caused illnesses.It has been s trongly suggested that owners of real estate properties be cautious of the insurance coverage they procure for their employees should such untoward incident occurs in their company or industry. Asbestos is also an environmental issue that should be carefully considered in real estate. Asbestos is generally a component of pipes and boiler rooms, as sound as in flooring materials and in roofs. Asbestos exposure cases are often higher in number in commercial and industrial companies, insofar these cases may also occur in residential real estate properties.The amount of money require to solve any presence of asbestos in a building is usually huge, hence it should always be unbroken in mind that any possible cause for asbestos exposure be pointed out as early as possible, before any exposure is determined to be chronic, which is turn results in more severe health problems among individuals associated with the real estate property. Individuals practicing in the real estate business s hould be sincere enough to advise the client about any reading that may be associated with asbestos presence or exposure within a real estate property he is showing and selling.Another subdivision that has been identified as an environmental issue in real estate is radon. Radon gas shows no color or odor, and is very diffusible through water and air. This gas has been frequently reported in residential real estate properties, hence it is important that the water and air of a real estate property be tested for radon gas before any come on step is taken towards the purchase or sale of a real estate property.Unfortunately, the safe or tolerable level of radon gas has not been established to date, hence any tests for the presence of radon gas in the water or in the air is just to satisfy the need to know where radon gas is then present in a real estate property. Real estate properties such as buildings and houses are often presented to potential buyers as multicoloured structures t hat are ready for occupancy. Hence, the environmental concern for pass along in the headstone used to coat the walls of the rooms of the real estate property is also an issue.Individuals most affected by the presence of subscribe to in the headstone used to coat the walls are the young children who often play on the floor of the rooms of a residential establishment. Young toddlers often crawling around the house and unfortunately, ingest any little thing they honour interesting in front of them. These little things may be lead paint chips that fall off from the wall and ceiling and land on the carpet, floor, or even the res publica in the backyard.Other families enjoy tend and planting their own vegetables, hence the presence of lead in the soil may pose a bioaccumulation of lead in the people spiritedness in this contaminated real estate property. It is therefore important that pre-erected real estate structures be evaluated for the presence of lead before any further step in done towards the purchase of the real estate property. Should lead be detected in a real estate property, an hanging function may be performed before any family or individuals feign into the real estate property.Currently, there are several assays that may be employed in the identification and management of environmental issues associated with real estate properties (Spada, 1997). Hence, it is imperative that these environmental factors be tested before any purchase is done on a real estate property, because it these factors go undetected, the consequences on the personal health of the individuals that will live or frequently unload time within the real estate property will be affected.Such undisclosed environmental issues often end up in lawsuits, as well as tarnished reputations in the real estate business. Hence, for those in the real estate business, it is of prime importance that reliable and specific randomness be obtained about the real estate property they are adver tise and selling. Such caution regarding the collection of information will serve as a good method is preserving the real estate business of a company.Certain real estate companies have established their own customized procedure in reviewing properties before they release these properties to the public and announce that this property is for sale. These customized procedures should be foolproof, robust and efficient in identifying environmental issues in a real estate property. Should this be kept in mind, there would probably be lesser cases of lawsuits and health illnesses in the future.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Master of Business Administration Essay

Pricing polity refers to the policy of shot the de statusine of the result or products and services by the management after taking into account of various internal and remote factors, forces and its own trade objectives. Pricing Policy basically depends on wrong theory that is the corner st maven of economic theory. Pricing is considered as wholeness of the basic and central problems of economic theory in a upstart economy. Fixing prices are the most important aspect of managerial termination making because food market price charged by the company affects the fork out and future production plans, pattern of distribution, nature of marketing etc. largely speaking, in economic theory, we take into account of simply twain parties, i. e. , buyers and sellers enchantment fixing the prices. However, in practice many parties are associated with set of a product. They are rival competitors, potential rivals, middlemen, wholesalers, retailers, commission agents and above all the Govt. Hence, we should ap blame due consideration to the influence exerted by these parties in the process of price determination. Broadly speaking, the various factors and forces that affect the price are divided into two categories.They are as follows I External Factors (Outside factors) 1. Demand, supply and their determinants. 2. Elasticity of take up and supply. 3. Degree of competition in the market. 4. Size of the market. 5. Good will, name, fame and reputation of a theatre in the market. 6. Trends in the market. 7. Purchasing agency of the buyers. 8. Bargaining power of customers 9. Buyers behavior in respect of particular product II. Internal Factors (Inside Factors) 1. Objectives of the theatre. 2. takings Costs. 3. Quality of the product and its characteristics. 4. Scale of production. 5.Efficient management of resources. 6. Policy towards serving of utilitys and dividend distribution. 7. Advertising and sales promotion policies. 8. Wage policy and sales turn over policy etc. 9. The stages of the product on the product life cycle. 10. Use pattern of the product. Objectives of the Price Policy A firm has multiple objectives today. In spite of several objectives, the ultimate aim of any business concern is to maximize its benefits. This is mathematical when the returns exceed be. In this context, setting an ideal price for a product assumes greater importance.Pricing objectives has to be established by top management to ensure not only that the companys profitability is adequate but in addition that set is complementary to the list strategy of the organization. While formulating the pricing policy, a firm has to consider various economic, social, political and other factors. The Following objectives are to be considered while fixing the prices of the product. 1. Profit maximization in the short term The primary objective of the firm is to maximize its profits. Pricing policy as an instrument to achieve this objective should be for mulated in such a way as to maximize the sales revenue and profit. maximum profit refers to the highest possible of profit. In the short run, a firm not only should be able to recover its fall costs, but also should get excess revenue over costs. This will build the morale of the firm and instill the spirit of confidence in its operations. 2. Profit optimization in the commodious run The traditional profit maximization dead reckoning may not prove beneficial in the long run. With the fillet of sole motive of profit making a firm may recourse to several kinds of unethical practices like charging exorbitant prices, follow Monopoly Trade Practices (MTP), suppressive Trade Practices (RTP) and Unfair Trade Practices (UTP) etc.This may lead to reverse from the people. In order to over- come these evils, a firm instead of profit maximization, and aims at profit optimization. Optimum profit refers to the most ideal or desirable level of profit. Hence, earning the most reasonable or optimum profit has become a part and parcel of a sound pricing policy of a firm in recent years. 3. Price stabilization Price stabilization over a period of time is another(prenominal) objective. The prices as far as possible should not fluctuate in any case often. Price instability creates uncertain atmosphere in business circles. sales plan becomes difficult under such circumstances. Hence, price stability is one of the pre requisite conditions for steady and persistent growth of a firm. A electrostatic price policy only toilette win the confidence of customers and may add to the good will of the concern. It builds up the reputation and image of the firm. 4. liner rivalrous situation One of the objectives of the pricing policy is to face the competitive situations in the market. In many cases, this policy has been except influenced by the market share psychology.Wherever companies are aware of specific competitive products, they seek to match the prices of their products with those of their rivals to poke out the volume of their business. Most of the firms are not merely interested in meeting competition but are wounding to prevent it. Hence, a firm is always busy with its counter business strategy. 5. Maintenance of market share Market share refers to the share of a firms sales of a particular product in the total sales of all firms in the market. The economic strength and advantage of a firm is measured in terms of its market share.In a competitive world, each firm makes a successful campaign to expand its market share. If it is impossible, it has to wield its existing market share. Any change state in market share is a symptom of the poor carrying into action of a firm. Hence, the pricing policy has to assist a firm to maintain its market share at any cost. Ques2. Explain the important features of long run AC skid. Ans coarse run AC squirms Long run is defined as a period of time where adjustments to changed conditions are complete. It is actually a period during which the quantities of all factors, variable as easily as fixed factors can be adjusted.Hence, on that point are no fixed costs in the long run. In the short run, a firm has to carry on its production within the existing embed capacity, but in the long run it is not tied up to a particular countersink capacity. If demand for the product increases, it can expand turnout by enlarging its plant capacity. It can construct new buildings or hire them, install new machines, employ administrative and other indissoluble staff. It can make use of the existing as well as new staff in the most efficient way and there is lot of scope for making indivisible factors to become divisible factors.On the other hand, if demand for the product declines, a firm can bang down its production permanently. The size of the plant can also be reduced and other expenditure can be minimized. Hence, production cost comes down to a greater extent in the long run. As all costs are variable in the long run, the total of these costs is total cost of production. Hence, the distinction between fixed and variables costs in the total cost of production will disappear in the long run. In the long run only the average total cost is important and considered in taking long term make decisions. Important features of long run AC thread 1.Tangent curve Different chemise curves represent different operational capacities of different plants in the short run. LAC curve is locus of all these points of tangency. The SAC curve can never cut a LAC curve though they are tangential to each other. This implies that for any given level of output, no SAC curve can ever be below the LAC curve. Hence, SAC cannot be trim than the LAC in the ling run. Thus, LAC curve is tangential to various SAC curves. 2. envelope curve It is known as Envelope curve because it envelopes a chemical group of SAC curves appropriate to different levels of output. 3. Flatter Un determine or dished curve.The LAC curve is also U shaped or dish shaped cost curve. But It is less pronounced and much flatter in nature. LAC gradually falls and rises due to economies and diseconomies of denture. 4. Planning curve. The LAC cure is described as the Planning Curve of the firm because it represents the least cost of producing each possible level of output. This helps in producing optimum level of output at the nominal LAC. This is possible when the entrepreneur is selecting the optimum scale plant. Optimum scale plant is that size where the stripped-down point of SAC is tangent to the minimum point of LAC. . Minimum point of LAC curve should be always lower than the minimum point of SAC curve. This is because LAC can never be higher than SAC or SAC can never be lower than LAC. The LAC curve will touch the optimum plant SAC curve at its minimum point. A rational entrepreneur would select the optimum scale plant. Optimum scale plant is that size at which SAC is tangent to LAC, such that both the curves have the minimum point of tangency. In the diagram, OM2 is regarded as the optimum scale of output, as it has the least per unit cost. At OM2 output LAC = SAC.

The Impact of Medical Technology on Health Care Finance

The Impact of medical Technology on wellness C ar Finance Patricia Brewer health sustentation greet arrive at been get on up for several years. United States wellness alimony Exp shuttingitures surpassed $2. 3 meg in 2008, much than three times the $714 billion spent in 1990, and oer eight times the $253 billion spent in 1980 (Kimbuende, 2010). f completely this growth has become a major(ip) policy priority, as the judicature, employers, and consumers increasingly struggle to keep up with wellness attention tolls.In 2008, U. S. wellness c everyplace consumption was ab step forward $7,681 per resident and accounted for 16. 2% of the nations gross Domestic Product. This is among the highest of all industrialized countries. Total wellness trade expenditures grew at an annual rate of 4. 4 percent in 2008, a dim-moving rate than youthful years, yet still outpacing flash and the growth in national income. There is a general agreement that health be are likely to continue to farm in the near coming(prenominal).Many analysts realise cited controlling health care approachs as a signalise for broader scotch stability and growth, and President Obama has made cost control a focus of health reform efforts under way. By 2016, total health consumption is projected to rise to $4. 2 trillion. Rising health care cost raise health insurance premiums, which are similarly exploitation at a much quicker pace than overall inflation or workers earnings. health spending has been rising two and a cardinal-half percent a year, faster than the gross domestic product over the past quadruple decades (Covington, 2008).Although Ameri provides benefit from many a(prenominal) a(prenominal) of the investments in health care, the recent rapid cost growth, plus with an overall economic slowdown and rising federal deficit, is placing great strains on the arrangings workoutd to finance health care, including private employer-sponsored health insurance cov erage and human race insurance programs much(prenominal) as Medicare and Medicaid. Since 1999, family premiums for employer-sponsored health coverage nonplus increased by 131 percent, placing increasing cost burdens on employers and workers.The average cost of a unity-day stay in a infirmary has now risen to over $500, the total cost of a coronary bypass operation and follow-up treatment has reached $37,300, and the average cost of de spicyring a baby now exceeds $2500. As cost nurse increased, few people require been able to relent the medical checkup care they need. oer 37 one thousand thousand Ameri tins, including over 12 million children, carry no health insurance at all and are unable to afford private health care, they must rely on a common health system that quarter non deal with much(prenominal) a burden.With workers wages maturation at a much pokey pace than health care costs, many face difficulty in affording out-of-pocket spending. Government programs, suc h as Medicare and Medicaid, also account for a significant share of health care spending, except they have increased at a slower rate than early(a) private insurance. Medicare per capita spending has gravid at a slightly lower rate, on average, than private health insurance spending, at about 6. 8 vs. 7. 1% annually between 1998 and 2008.Medicaid expenditures, similarly, have grown at slower rate than private spending, though enrollment in the program has increased during the current economic recession, which whitethorn consequence in increased Medicaid spending figures in the near future (Kimbuende, 2010). A major ground of the rise in health care spending is re carryable to advancements in medicine and engineering science. Both have improved and lengthened the fucks of many Americans, but as most know they do not come without a cost. Newly rising procedures are often expensive to cast and increase overall health care spending. According to theCongressional compute king, the start of increases in health care spending could be attributed to the development and airing of new-made technologies and medical work. Such advancements also conk to changes in practice, which in concert tend to increase spending. Consumer demand and increased utilization add to costs (Changes in Medical Technology, 2007). Ethics comes in at this point beca wont medical engineering science is highly valued as a beloved consume of American medicine. Patients expect up to date procedures, doctors are primarily clever to use it, and the medical industries fuck off billions of dollars selling it.The rising costs are seen as a major issue because many people in the United States aid from the new procedures and treatments produced each year. Medical technology refers to the procedures, equipment, and processes by which medical care is delivered (Barbash, 2008). Changes or advancements in technology would let in new medical and operative procedures, as well as new drugs a nd medical devices, such as scanners and defibrillators. excessively the recent rise and interest in universalizing Electronic Medical Records and the use of pr rasetive medicine has attributed to the development costs. scientific figure has given us vaccines, antibiotics, advanced content disease care, splendid surgical advances, and fine malignant neoplastic disease treatments (Barbash, 2008). Most health policy analysts agree that the farthestsighted- depot increase in health care spending is principally the final result of the health care systems incorporation of these new serve in clinical practice. A robotic surgical device is an example of how technology advancement can increase health care costs. These high tech procedures of becoming extremely popular and seem to be the future of surgery.These robots give surgeons to operate remote-controlled robotic arms, which whitethorn facilitate the accomplishance of laparoscopic procedures. Laparoscopic surgery is associated with shorter hospital stays than open surgery, as well as with less surgical pain and scarring, and lower risks of infection and need for blood transfusion. Robotic technology has been adopt rapidly over the past four years in both the United States and Europe. The human action of robot-assisted procedures that are performed worldwide have nearly tripled since 2007, from 80,000 to 205,000. Robotic technology affects expenditures by increasing the cost per procedure.Robotic surgical systems have high immovable costs, with prices ranging from $1 million to $2. 5 million for each unit. Surgeons must perform 150 to 250 procedures to become adept in their use (Robotic mathematical process Technology, 2006). The systems also require costly maintenance and demand the use of rise to poweral consumables. The use of robotic systems may also require more operating time than alternatives. Robot- assisted procedures may contribute to shorter hospital stays, which leave decrease costs, but at the same time require physicians to train on these cats-paws. Each instrument is a pricey expenditure for a hospital to pay for (Barbash, 2008).To view as these instruments and keep them up to date ordain be an added cost as well. These instruments perform miracles and may seem like a wonderful addition to the surgical world, but are not cheap. Advancements in scanner technology, such as CTs, allows for greater visibility at a higher(prenominal) resolution than was possible before. Innovative scanners, advanced applications, and exciting break finisheds in clinical procedures are driving an increased use of a CT as a first-string diagnostic tool for procedures such as colonography, cancer detection and staging, lung analysis, cardiac studies and radiotherapy planning (Diagnostic Imaging, 2011). hospitals and other health care facilities are pressured to purchase such equipment to keep up with the public demand for these high-specialized tests. With out such machines and t echnology the public will romp elsewhere to receive the care that they so desire and need, which will end in a loss of profit for such hospitals and other facilities. some other technological advancement that has a great impact on health care finance is the emergence of the Electronic Medical Record. Electronic Medical Records is a computerized medical record created in an organization that delivers care, such as a hospital or physicians office.Electronic medical records tend to be a office of a local stand-alone health information system that allows storage, convalescence and modification of records. The 2003 IOM Patient Safety Report describes an EMR as, a longitudinal accretion of electronic health information for and about persons, immediate electronic inlet to person- and tribe-level information by authorized users, and provision of knowledge and decision-support systems that enhance the quality, safety, and susceptibility of unhurried care (Electronic Medical Records, 2011). The adoption of these records can be quite costly.The price of an EMR system can range from a 1000 dollars to ten grand dollars, and in some cases they can cost even more. EMR costs increase as the system becomes more feature-rich. Huge facilities can buy complete EMR systems that cost around plus forty thousand dollars. Training and maintenance costs also have to be interpreted into account when purchasing EMRs. All staff must be prepare to operate the new machines, coming familiar with the new software and patient records. If you want to utilize the EMR product to its full potential, then you need ironware that perfectly complements the software.Purchasing computers and up to date software that will last for the long term is also an added cost. These systems also require maintenance to keep them on the job(p) sufficiently. A facility may also need to hire a networking professional to monitor and maintain the network in their facilities. A networking in effect(p) wil l ensure that the workstations remain connected to each other and seamlessly switch over data (Electronic Medical Records, 2011). The installation and upkeep of EMRs is not a cheap process. Many hospitals and private facilities are hesitant to make the improvement.The costly technology can improve the quality of care for patients by knowing ones medical history and ethical drug medicine drugs they are on or allergic too. It can also decrease unnecessary testing in many cases. President Barack Obama, as part of the effort to revive the economy, has proposed a massive effort to modernize health care by qualification all health records standardized and electronic. His aim is to computerize all health records within five years. He believes the quality of health care for all Americans gets a big boost, and osts will decline. Independent studies from Harvard, RAND and the Commonwealth Fund have shown that such a plan could cost at least $75 billion to $100 billion over the ten years t hey cipher the hospitals would need to implement program. The healthcare initiative will be one of the priciest parts of the plan. Along with the high costs a major refer of the government is that lack of skilled workers to build and implement the necessary technology. The biggest cost will be paying and training the labor force essential to create the network.The savings of such a plan could be substantial. The government estimates that a fully computerized health record system could save the fabrication $200 billion to $300 billion a year, and could ultimately slow the rapid rise of health care premiums, which have cut into Americans pay checks. There are many advantages that the Electronic Medical Records pose for both patients and physicians. The EMR can sign up errors in medical records. Handwritten records are composition to lots of human errors due to misspelling, illegibility, and differing terminologies.On-screen or printed text is often far more legible than handwrit ten. This can help prevent patients receiving the wrong medication or procedures, saving doctors from medical malpractice suits (Molar, 2010). Clinical errors cause at least 44,000 deaths annually in the United States. These deaths largely result from process errors, or the failure to provide recommended treatments for patients with certain medical conditions. With compute medical costs estimated at $17 billion annually, these errors impose a substantial burden on both the health care system and society as a whole.The real time paperless record include reducing the need for costly reproductions of laboratory findings and diagnostic reports, which in many health care facilities are still typed, copied, and physically carried to a hospital floor, clinic office, or medical records room to be placed in the patients map (Hunt, 2009). Loss of reports, or delays, are common until this information reaches the chart and the providers. magic spell wages are rising at a rate of around 3% a year, health care costs are increase at about three times that rate (Goldman, 2009).Prescription drugs also sport a role in Health Care finance. Advances in pharmaceuticals have transformed health care over the last several decades. Today, many health problems are prevented, cured, or managed effectively for years through the use of prescription drugs. In some cases, the use of prescription medicines keeps people from needing other expensive health care such as being hospitalized or having surgery. In 2007, 90% of seniors and 58% of non-elderly adults rely on a prescription medicine on a regular basis (Kimbuende, 2010).Since the 1990s spending on prescription drugs has been a much more prominent particle of growth in total spending. From 1995 to 2005, it grew by an average of about 10 percent per year and is still on the rise as the future of prescription drugs lies in the baby crusher generation (Technological Change, 2008). increase Medical Technology has led to the use of def ensive medicine by many health care physicians. Defensive Medicine refers to services that have little or no clinical value, but that physicians order or perform at least to avoid lawsuits (Technological Change,2008).With high malpractice premiums, more physicians everyday are turning to this type of practice. It is raising health care costs by performing unnecessary tests and procedures on patients that may not need them. There is reason to believe that new technology can in fact reduce health care spending. Some vaccines may project the potential for savings, and certain types of preventive medical care may help some patients avoid costly hospitalization for acute care. future tense advances in molecular biology and familials, may one day offer the possibility of savings if they make curative therapies available.Continued advances in understanding the genetic origins of disease offer the credible possibility that future providers will accurately predict the health risks faced by individual patients and design therapies tailored specifically to them (Convington, 2008). Overall, examples of new treatments for which long-term savings have been clearly present are few. Many medical advances to date have increased spending because they made treatments available for conditions that were previously impossible to treat or were not aggressively treated.Furthermore, improvements in medical care that decrease mortality by helping patients avoid or survive acute health problems paradoxically increase overall spending on health care because live patients live longer and therefore use health services for more years (Technological Change, 2008). With the baby boomers approaching retirement age and living past recent life expectancy age, health care costs are projected to rise even further. Technological advances and new medicines and prescription drugs are keeping people alive longer and putting a strain on our health care system.In coming decades, the share of the po pulation that is covered by Medicare will expand rapidly as members of the baby- boom generation become eligible for the program, and the share that uses long-term care services financed by Medicaid will also probably increase. According to the American Hospital Association, the first boomers will reach 65 in 2011 and 37 million of them will be managing one chronic condition by 2030. Also 14 million Boomers will be living with diabetes, thats one out of every four Boomers. Almost half of this generation will live with arthritis, and that number peaks to just over 26 million in 2020.More than one out of three Boomers, over 21 million, will be considered obese. As these patients live with multiple chronic diseases, demand for services will increase. The number of physician visits has been increasing for all adults, up 34 percent over the last decade, and this trend is expected to continue. By 2020, Boomers will account for four in 10 office visits to physicians and over the next 20 y ears, Boomers will make up a greater proportion of hospitalizations as they live longer but with multiple complex conditions.At the same time, the number of registered nurses, primary care and specialty physicians will not keep pace with demand. As the Boomer generation is more racially and ethnically diverse, there will also be a greater need for caregivers who reflect the novelty of and increase in this population (How Boomers will change Health Care,2007). With ever-changing demands, expectations and new technology, care delivery will also change. Boomers have lived through an amazing array of medical advances, from polio vaccine to radical heart surgery, and that trend will continue over the next two decades.Medical Advancements are taking place every day and are given rise to growing health care costs. Rising health care expenditures lead to the question of whether we are getting value for the money we spend. Compared to other high-income countries, the U. S. spends more, but this spending is not reflected in greater health care resources, such as hospital beds, physicians, nurses, MRIs, and CT scanners per capitaor better measures of health. The United States necessarily to figure out a way to use these advancements to our benefit and reduce cost while maintaining good quality of care to every patient.With the growing elderly population, medical technology is in high demand as many people over 65 are suffering with at least one chronic condition. The Untied States government and health care providers need to figure out a way to reduce the health care costs. The incorporation of preventive medicine and Electronic Medical Records can aid in cost reduction for the future. Unnecessary testing should be avoided to also help reduce costs. Hopefully, EMRs can reduce the derive of tests being performed and duplicated.Policies focusing on new and expanding technologies may have success in reducing the rate of growing health care costs but can be difficult to implement. In the long run, livery health spending growth closer to the rate of overall economic growth would require finding shipway to slow the development and dissemination of new healthcare technologies and practices, as well as developing ways to weigh the costs and benefits of new technologies (Technological change, 2008). References Barbash, G. (2010). New Technology and Health Care Costs. New England Journal of Medicine.Retrieved from http//www. nejm. org/doi/full/10. 1056/NEJMp1006602 Convington, L. (2008). An Alliance for Health Reform. Retrieved From http//www. allhealth. org/publications/cost_of_health_care/health_care_costs_toolk Diagnostic Imaging. (2011). Hospital and Healthcare Management. Retrieved From http//www. asianhhm. com/medical_sciences/advances_CT_technology. htm Electronic Medical Records. (2011). Open Clinical. Retrieved From http//www. openclinical. org/emr. hypertext mark-up language Goldman, D. (2009). Obamas big idea Digital Health Records.New York Times. Retrieved December 2, 2011, from http//www. nytimes. com/subscriptions/Multiproduct/lp3004. hypertext markup language? campaignId=384LY How Boomers Will Change Health Care. (2007). American Hospital Association. Retrieved From http//aha. org How Changes in Medical Technology affect Health Care Costs. (2007). Retrieved From http//www. kff. org/insurance/snapshot/chcm030807oth. cfm Johns Hopkins University (2006, November 28). Robotic Surgery Technology Gives Doctors Sense Of Touch. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 6, 2011, from http//www. ciencedaily. com /releases/2006/11/061128121916. htm Kimbuende, E. (2010). Health Care Costs. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved From http//www. kaiseredu. org/Issue-Modules/Prescription-Drug-Costs/Background-Brief Technological change and the Growth of Health Care Spending. (2008). Congressional Budge Office Retrieved From http//www. cbo. gov/ftpdocs/89xx/doc8947/01-31-TechHealth. pdf The Long Term Outlook for Health Care Spending. (2007). Congressional Budget Office Retrieved From http//www. cbo. gov/ftpdocs/87xx/doc8758/11-13-LT-Health. pdf

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

The Strange Ride of Morrowbie

In Rudyard Kiplings spirit aim The rummy posture of Morrowbie Jukes there atomic number 18 many aspects of the Indias traditions and customs. But hotshot custom that is strongly present though out the story is the position of the Indian clique system. Within severally character you are taken into the five takes of the club system. The caste system has been present in Indian culture for as far clog as their history nooky be traced. The five takes that are present with in the characters in the story are brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra, and untouchables (www. suchico. edu) correspond to Indianchild. com the India caste system is a hierarchical society. In the Indian caste system, no matter where you stand firm or what piety you are everybody is ranked into one of the five levels. The caste system is go out and followed by all who live within the system. No matter where you live everyone knows their caste ranking, and they behave towards each other according to t heir ranking. We are showtime introduced to Morrowbie, who is a man that is placed in the caste system cognise as Vaishya. tally to Caste System, the Vaishya are known as the Krsi (who are the battalion for grow the food grains), the goraksha (who are the cow protection), the vanijyam (who do the trading), the Vaisya karma ( spate who work), and svabhavajam (are the peck who are born of his own nature). The Vaisyas were known as the land-owners, money-lenders and influential traders. Morrowbie is known as a man with an education and career as a elegant engineer. Due to his successful career he is known as a land-owner. It is evident though out the story that Morrowbie knows of his high socio-economic figure level and the caste level of the spate around him.When he first fall into the hole he finds himself in the middle of a crowd. He states that the people are scantily clothed and can be associated with the Hindu mendicants (p. 24). According to the Indian caste level the m erchants are considered to be one level below Morrowbie Jukes. You can tell from the way that he speaks about them, that he believes them not to be worthy to be in his presence. Morrowbie goes on to translate how the merchants should show him respect and give him recognition of his presence there. In the story, Morrowbie is shown to make out the lower caste levels as second class citizens to him.While Morrowbie is trying to subvert food and shelter from Gunga he once again refers to the lower class of merchants that surround him. He states One does not protest against the doings of a den of wild beasts and my companions were lower than any beasts (p. 28). We are then introduced to Gunga Dass as a man of power and status in the purgatory of the dead. Gunga Dass is considered to be the highest class of the Indian caste system. According to www. csuchico. edu, Gunga Dass is in the caste level of brahmin. According to Gnome Research Brahmin are members of the priestly class in the I ndian system, and belongs to the upper caste society.The Brahmins as described by Indianchild. com is Brahman is of the nature of truth, knowledge and infinity. Gunga Dass claimed that he no longer lived his animation as a Deccanee Brahmin, alone he does still maintained his status in the land of the living dead. Even though Dass states that he renounced the Brahmin life, he still is living the role of his caste system. Gunga becomes the guide to Morrowbie, showing him the slipway of the new land and the laws that he must follow. Gunga takes the role of protector bonnie as he was in his time on earth. Morrowbie states Gunga Dass, whom I had begun to regard as my natural protector (p. 7). It is Gunga who nourishes the people, protects the land, just as he was during his life as a Brahmin. He gave Morrowbie shelter and food when he was asked. He also had the knowledge of the land, giving Morrowbie the answers that were proper for his own caste level knowledge. When Dass is request ed by Morrowbie to get the fresh boys body, he states to Morrowbie But I am Brahmin, Sahib- a high caste Brahmin. Even though it seems that Morrowbie has over stepped his caste position, it is Dass who is always in control. He is the protector, guide, nourishes, and all knowing of the land of the living dead.We are then introduced to the white boy that is killed by Gunga. The unnamed boy is considered to be a Harijan in the Indian caste system. According to Caste System in India the Harijan or untouchables was the lowest class of the Indian caste system. They were called the outsiders of the system, the people who were too low on the level to be considered part of the system. They were traditionally sweepers, washers of clothes, leatherworkers, and those whose occupation it was to kill animals (indianchild. com). The murdered white boy was described as wearing an olive-green hunting suit that was much stained and worn (p. 5). This explanation gives a clear indication that the murd er boy is a hunter, this is notion by the Indian caste system as a soulfulness who deserves no ranking or rights. The boy is never given a name, which indicates the unimportance of his position. Also it is his body that is drowns in the quick sand for no clear reason. His soul and body are not given a second thought about, he is inured like a dehydrated up piece of meat, just as he would have been treated during life on earth. We are finally introduced to Dunnoo, a boy that lives in the Indian caste system called Shudra.The Shudra are traditionally people that work in service as slaves or practitioners of unskilled trades. Dunnoo is in unskilled tradesmen who work as Morrowbies dog boy. He is a worker at Morrowbies farm that tends to his collies. Even though Dunnoo is considered to be in the lower class of the caste system, he is thought to be above the untouchables. That is why he is used as the person who saves Morrowbie, but it is never mention of any gratitude from Morrowbie for saving his life. In The Strange Ride of Morrowbie Jukes it is evident that the Indian caste system is used in each characters actions and manners.The Indian Caste system is a system that till this day, has been the back bone of the Indian society. The characters of this story displayed not only the attitudes of each caste system, but also the beliefs of how each caste level associated with each other. distributively character from Morrowbie to the white hunter established themselves in the undead world the equivalent as they lived above ground. They did not care where their bodies were, for living in the caste system you live your full life even after remainder in the same caste system.

Alcohol Industry, External Environments Essay

Diageo is a corporation that produces and distributes cloudburst swallows. Its products include both tierce branches of this industry spirits, drink and beer. The brands that the company produces include swell-known names uniform Smirnoff, Johny Walker scotch whiskey, Baileys, Captain Morgan rum, Tanqueray gin, Guiness beer, Don Perignon champagne, and many others. angiotensin converting enzyme tin find the products produced by this company in nearly 180 countries all around the world. The companys offices ar located in 80 countries and employ 20,000 flock.Manufacturing facilities argon spread out all around the world, including salient Britain, Italy, Australia, Latin America, Canada, Ireland, join States, Caribbean and India (Diageo, 2011). E precise company experiences the kneads of seven key surroundingss. One of them is internal milieu that defines the corporate culture. The other sextette environments ar external. They ar economic, technological, cultural, natural, establishmental and legal environments. Every environment consists of forces that influence either worry and their relationship with government and society (Steiner & Steiner).Diageo is a UK ground company, but the get together States of America is obligated for 40% of its revenue. The company has numerous offices, breweries and distilleries based in the USA, and they exist within influential frames of external environments of the country (Diageo, 2011 ). Regulatory surround The United States of America has very strict laws and regulations that concern intoxicantic potable Industry. alcoholic beverage spending, as well as its distribution, is regulated by the government. Every state has diametrical booze outgo rules and regulations.However, the minimum deglutition age of 21 years old is the same in every state. A place and time when alcoholic beverages may be consumed are regulated as well. The retail sales of liquor products are usually provided by the s pecialized stores. Some of the states, like Ohio, prefer to own the stores and capture control over prices and sales. Some other states have privatized liquor stores (Kwon, 2010). accord to the alcohol and baccy Tax and Trade authority, any retail lead has to operate with the compliance with the principal Federal liquor laws and regulations.For every manufacturing mend Diageo had to obtain manufacturing liquor license from the State Liquor Authority. inebriant and tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau regulates labeling physical process of wine, malt beverages and distilled spirits. It also determines the wellness warning statement that manufacturers have to put on the label (Alcohol and tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, n. d. ).Macroeconomic purlieu The macroeconomic environment has a great influence on the functioning of the company. There are received trends that characterize the present economic environment. The deferral made to a greater extent people stay at home than go out it led to the nurture of the off-premise consumption.During the recession consumers were trading down by purchasing less dearly-won brands (Kwon, 2010). For the manufacturing line of credit of Diageo it meant the slower growth of revenues through the years. The range of products had to change as well, as the less expensive brands and products took the lead. After the decrease of investments into the industry in general and Diageo in riveicular during the recession, investors interest in the company is rising. At the present moment, the on-premise consumption is recovering after the recession.Increase in spendable personal income in 2011 is leading to the growth of companys sales and consumption of more than expensive tribute brands. Consumers are experienceing to batch up (Kwon, 2010). The rise of the Producer Price Indexes put pressure on the profit margins of the company. Decreased interest rates mean an opportunity for active agent acquisitions and introduction of raw(a) products (Kwon, 2010). Cultural Environment The present cultural environment dictates Diageo produce more low-calorie products, as the creation of the United States of America is deviation towards the wellnessier life style and is fighting obesity (Kwon, 2010).The ripening military issue of Hispanic population increases demand for the liquor that is typical for that area, like tequila. It is very important to always target different age groups while conducting a marketing campaign or advertising. Different age groups have different product preferences and different spending habits. The wine producing segment of Diageo, especially the superior wines, is dismissal to benefit from the increasing itemises of consumers in the over-55 age group. increase number of young legal-age drinkers go forth contribute to the increase in beer consumption (Kwon, 2010).In general, mature consumers drink moderately, and are very conscious active alcohol abuse and drunk driving. Governmental e nvironment The United States government controls sales and marketing of alcoholic beverage products, collects levyes, and works on decrease underage drinking. Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau is the important federal agency involved in the alcohol policy. It regulates labeling, packaging, advertising and is responsible for product approval (Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, n. d. ).All alcoholic beverage businesses have to get the authorization to produce and sell from Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau under the Federal Alcohol Administration Act. Some of them also have to be authorized under the Internal Revenue Code. Before starting manufacturing, distilled spirits plant, brewery or winery have to take to for a permit of operation from The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Soon it is going to be doable to apply for these permits online (Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, n. d. ). Manufacturing and sale of the Alcoholic Beverages is app raiseed.A tax is imposed upon the privilege of engaging in business as a manufacturer or as an importing distributor of alcoholic liquor (USLegal, 2011). For example, in the year of 2008, the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau collected around $17,4 billion dollars in taxes. It made this bureau, the third largest tax gathering organization in the federal administration (Kwon, 2010). There are several reasons why the excise taxes are imposed on the liquor products. First of all, it slightly increases the price of the products.According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, lower prices on the alcohol beverages lead to the increase consumption of the alcohol mainly among the underage drinkers. This usually leads to the traffic crock up fatalities, increase of the level of crimes and alcohol associated health complications. The second reason for the tax revenue is the revenue that may be used for public health, safety programs, cake of underage drinking, e nforcement of liquor laws, and prevention and intercession of alcoholism (Center for cognizance in the Public Interest, n. d. ).Government enforces the three-tier alcohol industry products distribution system. Manufacturers and importers sell their products to the wholesalers, past the wholesalers sell them to the retailers. Technological Environment For the maximum efficiency of the alcoholic beverage production industry, manufacturing company has to stay up-to-date with all the technological innovations. faction of Rothes Distilleries is a joint venture in the United Kingdom, which was created in 1904 to process whiskey waste. Diageo is a proud member of this group and is taking part in one of their latest technological achievement.Waste from the whiskey distilleries is going to be used to create electric force play for up to 9,000 homes. The power plant has won funding from the Royal deposeing Group and the Royal Bank of Scotland. The engineering work is already in process, and the construction is about to start within twelve weeks. The plant is going to be built by the existing animal feed factory owned by the Rothes Distilleries. unfaltering residue from the distilleries entrust be taken to the plant and burned with the woodwind instrument to provide electricity which is going to be used to power local homes and run the animal feed production process (Ranscombe, 2011).Diageo is using enzymes as a part of the brewing process. Beer is usually made of barley, which contains stiffen that has to be broken down to fermentable sugars before the yeast can subscribe alcohol. Therefore, there is a process named malting, where enzymes are needed for the degradation of starch into fermentable sugars (Molecular-Plant-Biotechnology, n. d. ). New technology of using anaerobic bacteria, to scale down the point in time of pollution in the waters created by the processes of brewing and distilling, is used by Diageo (Dnce, Ayman-Oz, Turker, Celikkol, Dnce, n. d . ).New technologies allow the production of new types of packages like draft beer boxes and twirl bottles (Kwon, 2010). New software options were recently developed by the On-Trak company based in Cincinnati and Belgian company, Copa-Data. The new software allows manufacturers and distributors of food and beverage products overfly every item from the factory to the retail vault of heaven (Copa-Data, 2010). Natural Environment Processes of manufacturing of the alcoholic beverages cause damage to the natural environment. They generate large amounts of acidic, mutinous and colored wastewaters with high organic content (Steiner & Steiner, 2009).In 1970s, the Congress of the United States of America passed the number of new laws concerning the environmental protection. When the Environmental Protection action was created, this started the environmental decade. The agency has consistently worked on protection of human health and preservation of the natural environment (Steiner & St einer, 2009). There are numerous possibilities to inhibit the bad influence of the industry on the environment, and Diageo takes the path of sustainability as well as many other manufacturing companies. Diageo has reached Gold Class rating in the admired SAM Sustainability Yearbook 2011.The yearbook measures more than 2,500 of the worlds largest companies in terms of their bear on on economic, social and environmental mental process (Diageo, 2011). All breweries and distilleries have numerous options on how to reuse their wastes, like growing mushrooms on the fermentation wastes or sending spent grains to farms for animals feed. It is also possible to recover the heat from the hot water using the heat money changer saving energy (Cleaner Production International LLC, n. d. ). Trend interaction The six external environments do not exist apart from each other.They are connected and interact with one another. An important trend from one environment may be as important for another en vironment as well. For example, the regulations and policies provided by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau are connected to each other and can be related to both the Regulatory and Governmental environments. The same thing can be verbalize about all the technological innovations. Most part of the new technologies were created with the sustainability in mind. The new technology of anaerobic treatment of waste waters helps to reduce pollution.With the help of new recyclable materials Diageo can create more sustainable packaging for its products. Trends of macroeconomic and cultural environments are usually connected. Consumers buying style is more or less easy to predict knowing the original economic situation and having data on the personal disposable income. The close important trends Having all this in mind, it is easy to detect the most decisive trends for Diageos future. To be aware of the range of products that are going to be needed in future, the company has to predict the economic situation in the country.If there is a recession to come, and personal disposable income is going to drop, consumers will trade down, and more cheap brands will be consumed. In the opposite situation, trading-up will be going on, and Diageo will have to produce more premium products. Types of the products that will be consumed will also depend on the popularity of the on-premise or off-premise consumptions. Management of every company has to know companys customer base and be well aware of the demographical changes to come. Aging population of the USA is dictating the increase in the popularity of the premium brands, especially in wine and spirits sectors.Growing Hispanic population will increase the consumption of the import South American brands, few of which create a powerful competition for Diageo (Kwon, 2010). Another crucial trend for Diageo is constant development of new technologies that allow the company to increase its level of sustainability and re duce its negative impact on the natural environment, as well as increase companys efficiency and profits. Over the next five years, positive influence of the economic environment will take place. Recovery after the recession will allow people to get more freedom in their spending habits.Consumers will be trading up, and the on-premise consumption will thrive. The number of consumers in over-55 age group will be increasing, and demand for the premium brands will rise. It is important for Diageo to concentrate its attention on the innovation sector and introduce new brands and products that will match the growing demand for more expensive and sophisticated drinks. Old-fashion classic cocktail mixes manufacturing is another path that can be taken by the company. Diageo successfully applies most innovations that modern technology has to offer.I am sure, that in the words of the next five years, sustainability rating of the company will increase even more. Summary Exploring the present environment of business gives us a good idea on how the company operates in frames of the external conditions that influence the company. In its turn, every business impacts the environments, society and influences the course of history (Steiner & Steiner, 2009). It is easy to predict changes of many factors and trends. Knowing the way these changes will affect the company, we can create the optimal scenario for its development.However, there are some aspects that will remain uncertain, and some that will be changed with the influence of the company. Refernces Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. (n. d. ) . Liquor laws and regulations for retail dealers. Retrieved on April 26, 2011 from http//www. ttb. gov/public_info/5170-2a. htm Alcohol ans Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. (n. d. ) Labeling laws and regulations. Retrieved on April 26, 2011 from http//www. ttb. gov/labeling/laws_and_regs. shtml Center for Science in the Public Interest. (n. d). Why Raise Alcohol Excise Taxes? Ret rieved on April 27, 2011 from http//www.cspinet. org/booze/taxguide/TaxIndex. htm Cleaner Production International LLC. (n. d. ).The Alcholic Beverages Industry Improvement of election Efficiency and Environmental Performance. Retrieved April 19, 2011 from http//www. cleanerproduction. com/directory/sectors/subsectors/beveragesa. html COPA-DATA process control and line prudence systems. (2010). Retrieved April 20, 2011 from http//www. drinks-business-review. com/suppliers/copa_data Diageo. (2011). About us. Retrieved April 21, 2011 from http//www. diageo. com/en-row/ourbusiness/aboutus/Pages/default. aspx Diageo.(2011, March 11). Diageo achieves Gold Class sustainability rating. Press Release. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from http//www. diageo. com/en-row/newsmedia/pages/resource. aspx? resourceid=764 Kwon, E. Y. (2010, October 7). Alcoholic beverages and tobacco. old-hat and Poors Industry Surveys. Retrieved on April 7, 2011 from http//0-www. netadvantage. standardandpoors. com. o linkserver. franklin. edu/NASApp/NetAdvantage/showIndustrySurvey. do? code=abt Molecular-Plant-Biotechnology. (n. d. ). Enzyme in Beer Manufacturing. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from http//www. molecular-plant-biotechnology.info/foods-and-beverages/enzymes-in-beer-manufacturing. htm Mergent online. (2011, April 21). Business summary. Diageo PLC. Retrieved April 21, 2011 from http//0-www. mergentonline. com. olinkserver. franklin. edu/companydetail. php? compnumber=94345&pagetype=synopsis Ranscombe, P. (2011, April 15). Power plant that runs on whisky waste wins funding. The Scotsman. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from http//thescotsman. scotsman. com/business/Power-plant-that-runs-on. 6752016. jp Steiner, J. F. & Steiner, G. A. (2009). Business, government, and society. New York, NY McGraw-Hill Irwin U. S. Census Bureau.(2010, January 20). Resident population by age and state projections 2010 and 2015. The 2011 Statistical Abstract. Retrieved on April 27, 2011 from http//www. census. gov/c ompendia/statab/2011/tables/11s0018. pdf USLegal. (2011). Liquor Tax virtue and Legal Definition, Retrieved on April 27, 2011 from http//definitions. uslegal. com/l/liquor-tax/ Dnce, B. K. , Ayman-Oz, N. , Turker, G. , Celikkol, S. , Dnce O. (n. d. ). Microbial ecology of anaerobic reactors for treatment of alcohol industry wastewaters. Retrieved April 19, 2011 from http//www. formatex. info/microbiology2/988-999. pdf.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Childcare †Orientation Package Essay

INTRODUCTION One of the goals of the Ministry of pip-squeakren and spring chicken assistances is to helper support social and economic development in Ontario by investment funds in and supporting an affordable, hearty and accountable nestling vex strategy which helps benefit electric s haltrren, their pargonnts and occupygivers, and the broader community.The earlyish learning and churl c ar system in Ontario should be accessible, affordable and inclusive business organization for pincerren in a safe, nurturing environs foster early peasanthood development help support early learning and readiness for shoal be flexible and nominate prize support tiddlerren and their families provide portion standards of pincer mete start provide supports for p arnts in financial need, who ar employed, in training, or pertain in early(a) employment activities support economic growth, and work in take apartnership with others involved in Ontarios.early learning an d small fry portion out system. This Orientation big bucks has been intentional to provide exclusives who be interested in obtaining a license to operate either a solar solar twenty-four hour terminus greenhouse ( also known as nestling c argon center ons) or a orphic- visualizeetary house sidereal mean solar daytime care authorization in the Province of Ontario, with practical selective education and advice.The following(a) information is accept in this pack duration the process for obtaining a permit a thick of the licensing requirements to operate a day greenhouse or a private- home place day care action chthonic the solar day Nurseries deport a color of terms (Appendix 1) information to assist you in considering your decision to drill for a evidence to operate either a day nursery or a private-home day care maturatency (Appendix 2) a list of the regional Offices of the Ministry of Children and Youth work (Appendix 3), and a list of the Child Care Service System Man come onrs responsible for planning and managing the delivery of claw care operate throughout Ontario (Appendix 4).4 CHILD CARE IN ONTARIO The child care system in Ontario consists of a range of services for families and their children, including pass day nurseries and private-home day care which provide supports to children and their families.The twenty-four hours Nurseries tour requires some(prenominal) antecede that mystifys to a greater intent than five children to a lower place the suppurate of 10 forms, non of everyday broth (children who permit different parents), for temporary care and guidance, to be licensed as a day nursery. A person whitethorn provide informal child care to five children or little under the while of 10 years who are not of common parent get on with (children who nurture different parents), in addition to his/her own children, without a attest.This payoff may not be exceeded, regardless of the come in o f adults present or on turn up. When a person provides in-home child care at much than wizard location or co-ordinates the render of care at more(prenominal) than one site, a licence to operate a private-home day care developncy is involve. It is an offence to establish, operate or maintain a day nursery or private-home day care agency without a licence.On conviction, the fine is up to $2,000 for for all(prenominal) one day the offence continues, or internment for a term of not more than one year, or both. Ministry module watch the responsibility to follow-up on all complaints about child care world provided without a licence. CHILD CARE LICENSING IN ONTARIO The Ministry of Children and Youth Services is responsible for the sidereal day Nurseries dissemble and issues licences to hustlers of child care plans. in that extol are cardinal types of licensed child care syllabuss day nurseries and private-home day care agencies. In the daylight Nurseries Act and in thi s package, child care centres are referred to as day nurseries. sidereal day nurseries may include nursery schools, full day care, extended day care, and before and after school programs.Private-home day care agencies arrange or offer home day care at more than one home. Care is provided to five children or less, under 10 years of age in a private residence other than the home of the parent/guardian of the child. Homes are monitored by the agency. Role of the Operator Operators have responsibility for the operation and commission of each day nursery or private-home day care agency, including the program, financial and personnel office administration of the program. Operators of licensed day nurseries and private-home day care agencies are required to achieve and maintain accord with the standards dress out in Ontario regulating 262 under the Day Nurseries Act at all time.The Day Nurseries Act and Ontario Regulation 262 are uncommitted through Publication Services 777 utter Street, Market Level, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C8 416-585-7485 or 1-800-668-9938 The Day Nurseries Act is forthcoming on the ministrys website at http//www. elaws. gov. on. ca/html/statutes/english/elaws_statutes_90d02_e. htm. Ontario Regulation 262 under the Day Nurseries Act is available online athttp//www. elaws. gov. on. ca/html/regs/english/elaws_regs_900262_e. htm37. (1). The theater director under the Day Nurseries Act Child care licences are issued by a Director who is an employee of the Ministry of Children and Youth Services, appointed by the Minister for the conclude of the Day Nurseries Act. The Director reviews all documents required for licensing, approves and signs the licence.The Director has the function to jib to issue a new licence if the appli messt or any of the officers, directors or employees of the appli roll in the hayt are not competent to operate a day nursery or privatehome day care agency in a responsible manner in accordance with the Day Nurseries A ct 6 the past engage of the applicant affords reasonable grounds for the article of faith that a day nursery or private-home day care agency provide not be operated in accordance with the Day Nurseries Act, or the make in which the applicant proposes to operate the day nursery or provide private-home day care does not keep up with the requirements of the Day Nurseries Act. In addition, if in that respect are grounds, the Director may refuse to renew or revoke an existing licence. The Director may also issue a direction and temporarily suspend a licence if there is an contiguous threat to the wellness, safety or well-being of the children.An applicant or licensee is entitle to a hearing before the Licence Appeal Tribunal. Role of course of study Advisors political program Advisors, Ministry of Children and Youth Services rung designated under Section 16 of the Day Nurseries Act, are responsible for chit-chating day nurseries and private-home day care agencies to employ l icensing requirements. In some regional offices, this position is referred to as Licensing Specialist. Program Advisors are responsible for assessing whether the street goer has met the licensing requirements before an initial licence is issued. Unannounced inspections are conducted by Program Advisors for licence renewals on an annual basis or more frequently for a shorter term licences.In addition, Program Advisors conduct unannounced inspections in response to complaints re noveld to licensed child care programs and to monitor operators who have difficulty maintaining deference with licensing standards. The Ministry of Children and Youth Services also responds to complaints from the public pertaining to persons who are alleged to be operating without a licence (i. e. caring for more than five children under 10 years of age, not of common parentage, without a licence). The Application Process An undivided or mint can apply for a licence to operate a day nursery or a private-h ome day care agency. (Licences cannot be issued to partnerships. )Types of operators include an one-on-one corporations (non-profit and for-profit) municipalities community colleges churches, or Bands and Councils of the Band. The prospective operator contacts the topical anaesthetic regional Office (see Appendix 3) to request an application package and confirm the information required before proceeding with the next steps in the licensing process. previous to requesting an initial site inspection for a day nursery (a scrutinize to determine if the station is appropriate), the operator submits the completed application form to the regional Office, as well as pen verification from the zoning authority confirming the location is approve for use as a child care centre detailed floor plans, and detailed site plans of the proposed location.These plans moldiness(prenominal)iness include room measurements, window measurements (actual glass area), location of unyielding c abinets (counters and fund areas) and fenced out-of-door frolicground space dimensions (if required). Please note that effective July 1, 2005, as part of regulatory changes to the Ontario building Code, all building or redevelopment plans for a day nursery essential be reviewed and approved by the Ministry of Children and Youth Services prior to a municipality issuing a building permit. It is the operators responsibility to determine whether the location will seemly zoning, building, fire and health requirements. Written verification mustiness be submitted to the regional office confirming that these requirements have been met prior to a licence being issued. The requital for a new licence is $15 the renewal fee is $10.If a licence renewal is submitted to the ministry after the licence expiry date, the late fee is $25. 8 Planning and Design Guidelines for Child Care Centres This comport provides information about the planning, design and renovation of licensed child care centres. It is intended to be apply by persons involved in the site selection, design, and operation of a child care centre in the res publica of Ontario. This guide is available through the local MCYS Regional office and on the ministrys website at http//www. children. gov. on. ca/mcys/english/ imagerys/publications/be ststart-planning. asp. (Alternately, from the ministrys home page at.http//www. children. gov. on.ca, you can follow the links to scoop out Start, then Best Start resources, then Planning and Design Guidelines for Child Care Centres. ) Obtaining a Licence To obtain a licence, applicants must demonstrate compliance with the requirements set out in Regulation 262 of the Day Nurseries Act in a number of areas including confirmation of compliance with municipal zoning, building, fire and health requirements the suitableness of the building availability of equipment and furnishings conformity with space requirements and runawayground standards maintenance of supply /child ratios for various age groups staff qualifications nutrition appropriate conduct everyplacesight programming and insurance.Private-home day care agencies must demonstrate compliance with the requirements set out in Regulation 262 of the Day Nurseries Act in a number of areas including staffing and training policies and influences records of inspections of providers homes availability of equipment and furnishings appropriate behaviour management and insurance.The Program Advisor makes a recommendation to the Director under the Day Nurseries Act about the issuance of a licence based on their assessment of compliance with the requirements of the Day Nurseries Act and ministry indemnity. The Director decides whether to issue a licence and the type and term of licence to be issued. The Director may add terms and conditions to the licence. The operator is required to comply with the terms and conditions of the licence as well as the requirements of the Day Nurseries Act and min istry polity.Operators must apply for a licence renewal prior to the expiry date of the modern licence. Licences may be issued for a period of up to one year if all licensing requirements are met. health Canada Product safe Program Health Canada helps protect the Canadian public by researching, assessing and collaborating in the management of the health risks and safety hazards associated with the many consumer products, including childrens equipment, toys and furnishings, that Canadians use everyday. Through their Product Safety Program, Health Canada communicates information about juvenile product hazards and recalls to protect children from evitable risks.Advisories and warnings, juvenile product recall notices, food recalls and allergy alerts are post on the Health Canada website. The Consumer Product Recalls webpage can be accessed at http//209. 217. 71. 106/PR/list-liste-e. jsp. Health Canada offers an electronic newsletter so that the public can receive updates when con sumer advisories and warnings, juvenile product recalls, and consultation documents regarding consumer product safety are post on the Health Canada Web site. As a prospective operator, you are encouraged to register on line for this service at http//www. hc-sc. gc. ca/cps-spc/advisories-avis/_subscribeabonnement/index_e. html.Duration of Initial Licensing Process It may take up to 6 to 12 months to open a new day nursery or private-home day care agency depending on a number of factors, including the extent of the renovations, the incorporation of a corporation, the purchasing of equipment, the hiring of a supervisor or home visitors, the recruitment of staff, the development of policies and obtaining all required approvals. Types of Licences Regular licence may be issued for up to 1 year if the operator was in compliance with licensing requirements when last inspected. 10 Regular short-term licence issued at the sagaciousness of the Director routinely issued to new licensees ( generally for a period of up to half-dozen months) or when more frequent licensing visits are appropriate to support on-going compliance.Regular licence with terms and conditions terms and conditions are requirements prescribed by a Director and are additional to the requirements of the Day Nurseries Act. They may ricochet circumstances specific to the operation, such as half day or 10 month service. They may also be in pop to minimize the recurrence of a non-compliance, such as incomplete staff checkup records. Provisional licence When Day Nurseries Act requirements have not been met and the operator requires time to meet requirements, a provisional licence (generally for a period up to three months) may be issued. This licence gives the operator a period of time to meet licensing requirements.Copies of a letter indicating that a provisional licence has been issued and a summary of the non-compliances are sent to the centre for distribution to parents. The summary of non-co mpliances will also appear on the Child Care Licensing Website. Child Care Licensing Website MCYS has launched the Child Care Licensing Website to provide parents with information about licensed child care in Ontario. The site is accessible at http//www. ontario. ca/ONT/portal51/licensedchildcare. A search tool allows parents to search for child care by city, postal code, type of program, age group, program name, operator name and language of service delivery.The site also provides the status of the licence and the terms and conditions of the licence for any licensed program parents might be considering or about which they might be concerned. Once a licence is issued, the information appearing on the licence of the program will be available on the website. Child Care Service System Managers The child care system is managed at the municipal level by fortyseven merge Municipal Service Managers (CMSMs) /District 11 Social Services organisation Boards (DSSABs). Each service system m anager has responsibility for planning and managing a broad range of child care services, including fee subsidy, wage subsidy, family resource centres and special needs resourcing.Prospective operators should contact their local child care service system manager (see Appendix 4) to discuss the need for child care in the area being considered and for information about backing and fee subsidy. 12 DAY NURSERIES ACT SUMMARY OF LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR DAY NURSERIES Day nurseries are centre-based programs and can include nursery schools, full day child care, extended day and before and after school programs.Organization and oersight The operator of the day nursery is responsible for maintaining compliance with the Day Nurseries Act and ministry policy. This includes responsibility for the operation and management of the program and financial and personnel administration. A qualified supervisor who directs the program and everywheresees the staff is required for each child care centr e.This person must have a diploma in earliest Childhood Education, or other academic qualifications which are considered like, and have at least two years experience in Early Childhood Education. The supervisor must also be approved by the Director under the Day Nurseries Act. Staff Qualifications The supervisor must have a diploma in Early Childhood Education or equivalent qualifications, with two years experience and must be approved by the Director under the Day Nurseries Act. One staff with a diploma in Early Childhood Education or equivalent qualifications must be hired for each group of children. Health Assessments and immunisation Staff immunization/health assessment, as required by the local medical officer of health, must be completed before commencing employment. 13. phone number and classify Size Number of Staff required for a Day Nursery Other than a Day Nursery for Children with Disabilities Ratio of Employees to Children 3 to 10 1 to 5 Maximum Number of Children in a Group 10 15 Group Age of Children in Group Infant Toddler Under 18 months of age 18 months of age and over up to and including 30 months of age more than 30 months of age up to and including 5 years of age 44 months of age or over and up to and including 67 months of age as of August 31 of the year 56 months of age or over and up to and including 67 months of age as of August 31 of the year 68 months of age or over as of August 31 of the year and up to and including 12 years of age Preschool 1 to 8 16 petty(prenominal) Kindergarten 1 to 10 20 Senior Kindergarten 1 to 12 24 School age.1 to 15 30 All children must be supervised by an adult at all times. Ratios are not permitted to be reduced at any time for children under 18 months of age. Ratios are not to be reduced on the resort area. 14 Where there are sise or more children over 18 months of age or four or more children under 18 months of age in attention, there must be at least two adults on the exposit. Staff/chi ld ratios may be reduced to 2/3 of the required ratios during the periods of reach and deprivation of children and during the rest period, with the following exceptions when children are under 18 months of age on the playground with any age group. In a full day program operating six or more hours in a day, for the purposes of staffing, the period of arrival is not to exceed two hours after the opening and the period of departure is not to exceed two hours before the remnant of the day nursery. In half day nursery school programs and school age programs, the period of arrival is not to exceed 30 minutes after the opening and the period of departure is not to exceed 30 minutes before the closing of the day nursery. Criminal Reference Checks Individuals and directors of a corporation applying for new licences will be required to submit a criminal reference concur to their local Ministry of Children and Youth Services Regional Office as part of the licence application.In preparat ion for the initial licensing visit, the operator of the day nursery is required to develop a criminal reference date policy for all full and part time staff working with the children, as well as for volunteers. Additional information about the Ministry of Children and Youth Services criminal reference check policy is available from Regional Offices. Building and Accommodation Each day nursery must comply with the requirements of relevant local authorities i. e. zoning and building surgical incision, medical officer of health and fire incision comply with the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act, 2002, O. Reg. one hundred seventy/03, where applicable.These provisions only apply to designated facilities with drinking piddle systems where 15 the piddle is not provided through service connections with a municipal residential water system. The requirements of this regulation are available from the Ministry of the Environments website at http//www. ene. gov. on. ca/envision /gp/5361e. pdf comply with the requirements for lead flushing and water sample exam (where applicable) under the Safe Drinking Water Act, 2002, O. Reg. 243/07. The requirements of this regulation are available from the Ministry of the Environments website at http//www. ontario. ca/ONT/portal51/drinkingwater/General? docId= 177450&lang=en comply with the requirements of the Smoke-Free Ontario Act. have designated spaces for washing, toileting and separate storage areas for toys, play materials and equipment have designated space for eating and resting, preparation of food if prepared on expound or a food service area if food is catered (prepared off set forth by a food catering company and delivered to the centre), a fenced playground (see page 15), storage for beds, a staff rest area and an office area if the program operates for six or more hours have play space of at least 2. 8 square metres (30 square feet)Of clear floor space for each child, based on the licensed electr ical capacity have separate play activity populate for each age grouping. A separate sleep area for infants is also required have rooms on or below the second floor where the rooms are for children under six years of age have a clear window glass area equivalent to 10% of the available floor area for each play activity room for a program that operates for six or more hours in a day. 16 Equipment and Furnishings Each day nursery must have an adequate number of toys, equipment and furnishings for the licensed capacity.The toys, equipment and furnishings must be age appropriate and include fitting numbers for rotation as well as for gross- force activity in the playground area infant and toddler diapering areas that are adjacent to a sink cribs or cradles that meet the requirements of the Hazardous Products Act, for infants, and cots for older children equipment and furnishings which are hold in a safe and clean condition and unplowed in a good state of repair a telephone or an alternative means of obtaining arrest assistance that is approved by the Director. Where children are transported in a day nursery vehicle, child seating and simplicity systems are used that meet the requirements of the Highway Traffic Act, O. Reg. 613. Policies and Procedures Every operator must develop the following policies and procedures gust evacuation procedures sanitary practices monstrous occurrence policy, including child abuse reporting procedures Criminal reference check policy Medication policy conduct management policy, including monitoring procedures and dispute policies 17. Program statement/parent handbook Playground safety policy Anaphylactic policy, including an individual plan for each child with a disgusting allergy and the emergency procedures to be followed. Playground Requirements Programs operating six or more hours in a day require exterior play space equivalent to 5. 6 square metres (60 square feet) per child, based on licensed capacity. The playground must be sub-divided if licensed capacity is over 64 children at ground level and adjacent to the premise designed so that staff can maintain constant supervision. If used by children under 44 months of age as of August 31 of the year, the playground must be fenced to a lower limit height of 1. 2m (4 feet) and furnished with one or more gates that can be securely unappealing at all times. If used by children 44 months of age and up to an including 67 month of age as of August 31 of the year (children eligible to attend junior and senior kindergarten), the playground is fenced to a minimum height of 1. 2 metres and the fence is furnished with one or more gates that are securely closed at all times, unless other than approved by the Director. Fixed playground structures (i. e. climbing equipment, slides) are not required by the Day Nurseries Act however, if the operator intends to install fixed play structures, the structures and safety rise up must meet current Canadian Standards Association standards. The current Canadian Standards Associations (CSA) Standard applies to new and newly renovated playground equipment, and 18 safety surfacing. The CSA Standards also set out the requirements for routine maintenance and inspections. Playground plans indicating the type and location of fixed structures as well as the type and area of safety surfacing must be approved by the ministry before installation. Once play structures and surfacing are installed, compliance with the CSA standards must be verified in opus by an independent certified playground inspector before the structures can be used by the children. Inspections Copies of fire and health inspections are to be sent to the Ministry of Children and Youth Services program advisor and kept on file at the day nursery. Insurance Requirements The operator must have comprehensive general liability reportage and personal injury coverage for all staff and volunteers. All vehicles owned by the operator and used for transportation of staff and children must have motor vehicle insurance. Fire Safety and Emergency Information A fire safety plan must be approved by the local fire department. A scripted evacuation procedure, approved by the fire department, must be posted in each room. Staff are to be instructed on their responsibilities in the event of fire. Monthly fire drills must be conducted and written records of drills maintained. Tests of the fire alarm system and fire protection equipment (as required under the Ontario Fire Code) must be conducted and written records of test results maintained. There must be a designated place of emergency shelter. An up-to-date list of emergency telephone numbers including the fire department, hospital, ambulance service, poison control centre, police department and a taxi service must be posted where they can be easily accessed. Medical and emergency contact information for each child must be accessible. Health and Medical Su pervision A daily written log that includes health and safety incidents is required. Any operating instructions or recommendations made by the fire department, public health department or other regulatory bodies must be implemented and recorded. Sanitary practices and procedures must be approved by Ministry. Children must be immunized jibe to the requirements of the local medical officer of health, unless a fully authorised exemption is on file. Before each child begins to play with others, a daily observation of the childs health is required. An ill child must be stray from others and arrangements made for the child to be taken home or for immediate medical attention, if required. Serious occurrence procedures must be in place and the Ministry of Children and Youth Services notified of any occurrence. A serious occurrence includes such things as the death of a child, a serious injury, alleged abuse/mistreatment of a child, a missing child, a disaster on the premises (e. g. fire) or a serious complaint. 20 A written anaphylactic policy is in place that includes A strategy to reduce the risk of exposure to anaphylactic causative agents A communication plan for the provision of information on lifethreatening allergies, including anaphylactic allergies An individual plan for each child with an anaphylactic allergy that includes emergency procedures in respect of the child Staff, students and volunteers have received training on procedures to be followed if a child has an anaphylactic reaction. A first aid outfit and manual must be readily available. A written procedure approved by a qualified medical practitioner regarding the natural endowment and recording of medicine is required. The procedure should include the storage of medication (e. g. medication must be stored in a locked container). If a child has or may have a reportable disease or is or may be infected with a communicable disease, this is reported to the medical officer of health as so on as possible. Cats and dogs on the premises must be inoculated against rabies. Nutrition Infants are to be fed according to written parental instructions. Food and drink from home must be labelled with the childs name. All food and drink must be stored to maintain maximum nutritive value. Meals and snacks must meet the requirements of the Day Nurseries Act. Canadas Food Guide provides useful information about nutrition.21 Meals are to be provided where a day nursery operates for 6 or more hours each day or where the daily program operates less than 6 hours each day and operates over the meal time. This generally refers to the provision of lunch as the mid-day meal.In day nurseries that offer care over extended hours, this may mean that breakfast and/or dinner are also provided. With the approval of a ministry Director, children 44 months of age or over as of August 31 of the year may bring dish lunches. Written policies and procedures with guidelines for bag lunches should be both posted and provided to parents. Menus must be posted with substitutions noted. Childrens food allergies must be posted in the kitchen and in all rooms where food is served. Special dietary arrangements for individual children are to be carried out according to written instructions of parents. Behaviour Management Corporal punishment is not allowed under any circumstances. The following are not permitted deliberate harsh or degrading measures that would spite or undermine a childs self respect deprivation of food, shelter, clothing or bedding confining a child in a locked room exits locked for the purpose of confinement. Written behaviour management policies and procedures which guide centre staff in managing childrens behaviour are to be reviewed annually by the operator. The operator is required to review the policies and procedures with employees and volunteers or students before they begin working, and annually thereafter. These policies must set out permitted and taboo behaviour 22 management practices and measures to deal with any contraventions of the policy. There must be a signed, written record of all reviews, and a written procedure for monitoring behaviour management practices of employees, students and volunteers, and a record kept of this monitoring. Enrolment Records Up to date enrolment records for all children in attendance must be on site at all times and be available to the Ministry of Children and Youth Services. These records include, in part, an application, immunization records, emergency information, name calling of persons to whom the child may be released, parental instructions regarding rest, diet or exercise. Daily attendance records that indicate a childs arrival, departure and absence from the program are required. The medical officer of health or designate such as the public health nurse is permitted to inspect childrens records to ensure that all required immunizations are up to date. Program In order to ensu re that the program offered is age and developmentally appropriate for the age of the children being served, the following is required a written program philosophy statement which is reviewed annually by the operator and with parents prior to enrolling their child a program statement which includesServices, age range, times when the services are offered, holidays, fees, admission and discharge policies, program philosophy, program development, personal and health care, nutrition, parental involvement and 23behaviour management, specialized services and activities off the premises varied, flexible and age appropriate programs that include quiet and active play, individual and group activities which are designed to promote gross and fine motor skills, language and cognitive skills, and social and emotional development, and a daily program plan posted and available to parents with any variations to the program recorded in the daily log. In addition Any infants not able to walk are to be separated from other children during active indoor and outdoor play periods Children under 30 months of age are to be separated from older children during active indoor and outdoor play periods Children who attend for six or more hours in a day and are over 30 months of age shall have at least two hours of outdoor play, weather permitting Children who attend for.

The Courtesans of Bollywood

The media whether in print, television, or the cinema has opthalmicised wo hands in all(prenominal) sorts of images. These images reflect how a certain society apprehend women and what roles do they portray in reality. Women in Indian cinema consent been variously depicted with different images which represent the division within the Indian society. only if corresponding in any parts of the world, the classification surrounded by men and women has been distinct through start hi report card. Even in modern time, such classifications which further divide both energisees lifelessness exist in media because of the stereotypes that de homosexuald been established.The Indian take in industry, noteworthyly called as Bollywood, has effectively created movies which encompassed the different faces of women in their nation. There atomic number 18 films that attributed them with Hindu goddesses and as well as delineation them as traditional and modern women from all division o f the clique. The films that ar do depicting women reflected Indias thoughts and behavior towards sex and social norms. The media despite of its inclination of an orbit for exaggeration and sensationalism draws its inspiration from real lifes share, no matter how fictitious the story becomes.No matter how the characters of women are formed, their roles in the film say a lot nearly the current social cognition of Indian Women. Two not satisfactory films in Bollywood will be the central discussion of this essay. Pakeezah (1972) and Devdas (2002) became well-known for the romantic flecks amidst the struggles within social taboos combined with cinematic intensity and songs aptly made for the film. From these films, the heroines that will be given slow-wittedness belong to that level of society which is usually judged derogatively.Sahibjaan of Pakeezah and Chandramukhi from Devdas share the same art of courtesans, and played major roles in the films showing how Indian court esans are creation personified. The discussion for the two female protagonists will revolve around their cosmos courtesans and they symbolized Indias perception and direction of their views regarding sex activity and how their norms and social evolvement are determine by these views. Courtesans, as seen from the films, cater to the public eye, predominantly of male audience. Their profession has been criticized by society as immoral and these women are usually disjointed from the realm of an ideal woman.By exploring the two films, it will be argued how the views of courtesans are still relevant in the modern Indian society. To be commensurate to adopt the contents of the arguments for the established thesis realmment, a brief background or summary of each movie will be provided. This is for the intent of bounteous a foundation or an origin where the standpoints will be derived. Second, in that location will be an attempt to categorize Indian courtesans which is distinct from courtesans of new(prenominal) countries. This will be connected to how the character of a courtesan became an chassis of Indias assumption towards sexuality.From this, Sahibjaan and Chandramukhi from the films will be subjected to analysis, comparing the differences of their roles as courtesans on the films. The essay will be concluded by gathering all the insights that have been discussed and as well as its implications on Indian society. The plot of both films is set in the conservative India where traditional elements are extremely emphasized. One of the two films has been derived from a 1917 novella called Devdas. This film has many versions in different languages and the one directed by Sanjay Bhansali in 2002, is the latest and the commencement ceremony full colored version of the film.Devdas gouge be tell as a spotless love triangle story with the lives of the main characters intimately intertwined with each other. The male protagonist Devdas came back from Londo n to reconcile with his long-time childishness beloved Paro. The two has been arranged for spousals however, when the Paros maternal bank line as dancers is revealed, her humiliated mother unconquerable to arrange a marriage for Paro to another(prenominal) man. From that aspect the tragedy of the heart-broken Devdas ensues, as his college friend introduced him to the world of alcoholic beverage and carnal desires.The cathouse where his friend brought him became his emotional solace or more of an emotional escapism. As Devdas began to indulge in alcoholism, he met the most famous courtesan relieve oneselfd Chandramukhi. Her beauty and exquisite charm which made Chandramukhi as a renowned courtesan became an irresistible pull for Devdas to become close to her. On the other hand, his vulnerabilities as a man shown by his weakened state by the alcohol and the discovery of his supposed love story became the lawsuit why Chandramukhi fell in love with him.The story takes its turn w ith Devdas macrocosm devoured by his alcoholic addiction and Chandramukhis love for him brought her to Paro to convince him to throw in his self-destruction and afterwards formed a friendship with her. Though he did not listen, Devdas promised to see her before his death. Eventually, he confessed his love for Chandramukhi however unawares after that he expressed his goodbye to her because of his intent to move out of the country. On his journey and with the destruction drink of wine, he became extremely sick. look himself on the verge of death, he went to fulfill his promise to Paro to see her.Paro ran to befitting him but her husband prohibited her and as Devdas dies in front of their gates, his last image is Paro trying to reach for him and screaming his name. It is a clear sad story for the three characters as all of them are not able to achieve the happiness they valued out of love. The dynamism of the story is presented by the diverse social upbringing of the character s. Devdas is born from the upper landowning class, while Paro came from an cut-and-dried family whose lineage is from dancers, and Chandramukhi beingness a courtesan is judged by the society as immoral.The three main characters attempted to go beyond their social perspective as the purpose of love became their main source of strength to nurse the social norms. The second film which similarly tackled defying social classifications in the name of love is, Pakeezah. Released in 1972, this film took 14 years to be effected due to personal issues between the main pat and the director. An original survey of Kamal Amrohi, Pakeezah is a classic Indian courtesan movie. This film is a story about a woman who dreams of escaping a world where she felt tinpot(prenominal) and soulless.Sahibjaan shared the same fate that her mother did, a profession which last led to the rejection of her fathers family. After her mothers death, her auntie Nawabjaan adopted her and brought Sahibjaan to he r brothel where she practiced dancing and singing. She became famous as a courtesan when she grew up, however, her aunt felt the need to get Sahibjaan out of the brothel when her father came searching for her. On the train ride out of the urban center Sahibjaan found a note that has been slipped between her toes where a foreigner wrote about the beauty of her feet and not to soil it.This note became her hope to find give birth from the environment she desperately wants to escape. It also became her only evidence that this particular stranger is the only one who can love her truly and the note is her premier(prenominal) real communication with someone who has a pure intention towards her. She was able to meet the stranger who is a forest ranger named Salim, and because of her fear that he might reject her, Sahibjaan kept her true identity. Salim brought her to his family however as men recognized Sahibjaan as the courtesan, Salims family disapproved.Despite of Sahibjaans confessi on about her work, Salims feelings did not change and both of them ran away together. He eventually decided to marry her, renaming Sahibjaan as Pakeezah meaning the pure one. However, her shame and fear as being a courtesan dominated her, and not wanting to check Salims reputation Sahibjaan fled from him and called off the marriage. Her decision has left Salim hurting and as a way of retaliation and coping with the pain, Salim decided to marry another woman and invited Sahibjaan for his wedding. In this part of the film, she danced on broken glasses often symbolizing the pain that both of them share.A revelation has been made when Salims uncle, Shahabuddin, learns that Sahibjaan is his long-lost fille and it resulted to a happy-ending for Sahibjaan, knowing that her father will save her from the world she wanted to get away from, and as well as a misfortune for her love for Salim to be reconsidered. Just like the film Devdas, Pakeezah tells about a romantic story of a courtesa n with a heart. Someone like Sahibjaan does not desire to be a courtesan forever and wanted to become a real woman by meeting her future husband and be a wife.There is also the familiar pattern of the characters treat their social billet to be able to experience a alliance with one another. It leaves the impression of Indian movies such as these that the division of the caste system in reality is strictly followed. Pakeezah and Devdas are two classic Bollywood films which portrays the kind of women often degraded by the society. These films presented the courtesans with such humanity which goes beyond their profession of enticing and engaging their audience towards them.Courtesans can be said to have prominently existed way before the times of the monarchy. Indian courtesans are said to be sexually liberated and educated women who dance in the temples and at public ceremonies and the only women who are allowed to learn to read, sing, and dance (Feldman & Gordon, 2006, p. 161). J ust like other courtesans in general, they are meant to entertain and offer their corporation to men. Their difference from prostitutes is that sexual intercourse is just one of their services. They engage in discussions, in festivals, and in the arts. Simone de Beauvoir further differentiates the twoProstitutes need two kinds of men, leaf node and protector. In her environment man is superior to woman, and this setting apart favors a kind of love-religion which explains the abnegation of certain prostitutes. For the courtesans, beauty and charm or sex appeal are necessary but not enough, she must be recognize as a person. Her pride, her independence, and her money mean that she will neer be taken no man will be her absoluter master. (cited in Kazmi, 1994, p. 237) From the two films, as courtesans their bodies became the attraction to be able to play the part.The dances and mujras by Sahibjaan and Chandramukhi are utilized to emphasize their body part and allure to draw men. A s in Indian cinema, women are placed in the cast for the purpose of having something pleasurable in the eyes on the screen. In their traditional exhibitionist role, women are simultaneously looked at and displayed with their appearance coded for strong visual and erotic impact so that they can be said to connote to-be-looked-at-ness (Kazmi , 1994, p. 234). Since their roles are courtesans, they are always under the scrutiny of their male clients.Their publicised sexuality makes them a property of the society. However, from the films, it can be seen that the courtesans fell in love with the male protagonists both coming from noble families. This love makes them as the heros property, thus, losing their generalized sexuality and showgirl connotations and their erotic charms are for the male protagonists alone (Kazmi, 1994, p. 234). That sense of property has not been made functionary since Sahibjaan and Chandramukhi are not seen married under traditional ceremonies.This gives the i mpression that India whitethorn not view courtesans as an ideal wife, no matter how the circumstances of falling in love may occur. In Devdas, Chandramukhi is seen as a feisty woman who holds her dignity as a courtesan. Despite of the legion(predicate) males gawking at her performance and by the harsh judgments which society throws at her, she neer did want to become someone else or want anything other than Devdas. She has a strong image of a courtesan represent in the film. Chandramukhi can be classified as the classic courtesan who has lived by her great deal to occupy the public, though she is condemned by it.By the time that she became too attached with Devdas, her province of pleasing many people has been devoted to please Devdas so he could ease his sufferings. Chandramukhis sacrifice of letting Devdas go symbolized her gratitude for him the moment he confessed that he loves her as well. Because that love is rarely given to a courtesan like her and the fact Devdas see he r as a normal woman worthy of it, she devoted her life taking care of him and letting go of him in the end even if it entails her happiness (Nair, 2002, p. 86). On the other hand, Sahibjaan is pictured as a courtesan struggling for an escape from the world she grew up with.Unlike Chandramukhi, Sahibjaan is a courtesan who wished to change her life and get out of her profession. However, the floor of her mothers life haunts her, encapsulating her in fear that she might never achieve the normal life that she wanted. A courtesan who pleases out of duty, the film focused on making her worthy of marriage. The scene where Salim renamed her as Pakeezah provided her the status that she is still worthy of being a wife despite of being a courtesan. She can be said as someone who subsequently gives in to the cruel prejudices of society.By refusing Salims offer of marriage, Sahibjaan continues to be a possession of the public, denying herself the happiness that she wanted to be rescued by the one man she loves. Nonetheless, both women have exuded strength when it comes to making choices. Though they have been portrayed as weak for love and for rescue, they have made decisions which in their fellowship can deprive them of the happiness that they want. In society, since courtesans are made to please the world, sacrificing their own personal interests is a part of their duty.Thus, their role as a public commodity strips them off the right to be part of the confidential sphere, which includes the family. The courtesans of Indian cinema maybe considered as the origin of independent women in Indian society. A courtesan is said to have the courage to lodge society, established morality, and the powers that be (Kazmi, 1994, p. 231). That the courtesans in these films are the early embodiments of empowering womens sexuality when it comes to breaking social norms, since in the conservative Indian nation courtesans or good women alike, are considered marginalized.Courtesans can be viewed as the mortal goddesses of the Indian society who can personify evil and goodness in how sexuality is perceived. References Feldman, M. , & Gordon, B. (2006). The Courtesans Art. unused York Oxford University Press. Kazmi, F. (1994). Muslim Socials and the Female Protagonist beholding a Dominant Discourse at Work. In Forging Identities Gender, Communities, and the State, (pp. 226-243). Zoya, H. (Ed. ). New Delhi Kali for Women. Nair, P. K. (2002). The Devdas Syndrome in Indian Cinema. Cinemaya 56/57, Autumn/Winter 827.