Tuesday, April 30, 2019

The public sector is the sole remaining sector in which trade unions Essay

The public sector is the sole remaining sector in which trade unions know influence in the employment relationship. Discuss th - Essay ExampleIndustrial relations consent varied through with(predicate)out the ages and differ in terms of concepts and implementation. Based on statistics presented by the Federation of European Employers, membership in the trade unions in Western parts of Europe declined over the last 20 years. Out of 27 members in the European Union, very few nations have more than half of their agitate multitude in the trade unions. In fact, even the most populated states have only a moderate number of their population having membership. Italy has 30%, Germany has 29% and France has 9% of their respective populations having union membership. The reasons will be discussed in the middle portion of this analytical paper (Federation of European Employers, 2010). Ferner and Hyman (1998) have argued that Europe developed trustworthy unique features in their industrial selections during the end of nineteenth and twentieth century, and majority of them have remained in force till the present time. One of the major responsibilities of the employers association and the trade unions by sector or trade is corporal bargaining and are coordinated by the confederations. Bargaining at the company levels came some(prenominal) later and has been growing, but still remains under the guidance of the federations. A distinction has been presented between collective bargaining, which mostly deals with give outing hours and wages, and participation of the wage earners which includes the working conditions, welfare, and in addition adaptation of the broader collective agreement (Ferner & Hyman, 1998). quick industrialization has been going on in the industrial relations in Europe. Even during the process of integration, industrial relations and national politics will remain important in areas of social regulations of employment and work in Europe. The reason i s that the European integration has evolved as the process of liberalization of the economy over the decades and this has happened through the international methods of opening up of the national economies through negotiated expansions of markets which remain beyond the national borders. Industrial relations therefore have always been governed by regulations and rules although to varying extent. This is not just the outcome of contracts but also of the status rules imposing obligations and rights and on the contracting parties, such that they cannot modify them even by mutual agreements (Wolfgang, 1998). marshals views on industrial relevance bear relevance in this context. According to Marshalls theory the social rights remain awarded according to the citizenship status rather than on the principle of classes or needs. His produce was that the extension of the social rights is not entailed by destroying social classes or inequality. Mundlak says that even though Marshalls views of the industrial citizenship are on the decline, there are other aim-market institutions which bridge the gap between citizenship and the labour rights. These are workplace democracies, assuming the workers consistency in the organisation and corporate citizenships which are used to result

Monday, April 29, 2019

Dualism Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Dualism - Research Paper ExampleAre medical researchers within their rights to experiment on animals if their research helps cure diseases? Do animal rights properly be unyielding to the realm of philosophy and pedagogy, or is it a matter for the courts? At the crux of the issue is the meaning of sentience. Does feeling (i.e. physical sensation) equate to intuition service? The master(prenominal) thrust of this paper is to argue that the ability to feel pain establishes a minimum ethical criterion for not experimenting on animals and, if by extension, feelings and other emotions are deemed to be present, then animal protection should modernize the force of law. Aristotle wrote that animals meet this minimum criterion, arguing that they are endowed with perceptive sensitivity, which appears inherent in solely animals, for they have an innate power, which (is called) sound perception (Aristotle, 354). But when it came to this sensitivity, Aristotle state, not all animals are cre ated equal. He said that sense being inherent Name 2 in some animals, a permanency of the sensible object is engendered, but in others it is not engendered, as would be the case with insects, for instance (Aristotle, 354). Descartes made a similar distinction, but one which drew on mans supposedly divine nature, asseverate that while animals wield an intelligence that allows them to carry out basic tasks, such as finding shelter, this intelligence is of a significantly inferior type to the rational intelligence of man, which comes from his soul (Kang, 117). Ultimately, Descartes decided that animal intelligence cannot be compared to that of humans, because animals are unable to reason or communicate verbally. Nevertheless, whatever the limits of animal consciousness magnate be, countless theories have been developed to support the validity of animal intelligence. Physicalist and Neurofunctionalist philosophical approaches Physicalism postulates that consciousness canbe determine with neuron activity, a position that allows for the possibility that intelligence is a characteristic humans and animals share, so long as they are built upon the same biological, chemical and physical properties (Allen, 2010). Such an approach also claims that questions virtually the relative intelligence of different species becomes trivial once neuroscientists have carried out the non-trivial task of determining the physiologic basis of consciousness in animals for which no reasonable doubt of their consciousness can be diverted (Allen, 2010). Neurofunctionalism considers the existence of neural cortex activity in primates as the most plausible expectation for being the neural correlate of phenomenal consciousness in these species (Allen, 2010). In On a amazement About a Function of Consciousness, N. Block associates phenomenal consciousness with brain processes in certain higher-level perceptual representations. Since the evidence for Name 3 such processes is at least part ially derived from animals, including other primates and rats, (Blocks) enchant is supportive of the that phenomenal consciousness is found in some nonhuman species (presumably most mammals) (Allen, 2010). Other first-order theories meet a more direct line, including representationalism, which insists that an animals ability to perceive its surroundings equates to conscious awareness. Aristotle and Locke took a

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Ethical reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Ethical reflection - Essay ExampleFor example, the case of physician-assisted suicide must be understood. Religious beliefs may go against this, but people must understand that sometimes it becomes crucial for the physicians to adjudge the patient die with dignity and peace rather than leave him die in distress. People confuse negative rights with positive ones, as we see that the patients family insists upon occupying the waiting room on spiritual grounds. On the other hand, the importance of spiritual, religious and cultural beliefs can also not be denied, since these beliefs be the basis of a national or cultural identity which cannot be compromised upon. Hence, a middle running must be sorted out that satisfies both the medical considerations of the case and the spiritual/religious/cultural beliefs linked to it, just like Buryska (120) states, The ethical principles that must be balanced are respect for self-reliance (the wishes of the patient) and beneficence (the physici ans judgment of what is best for the

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Total Quality Management - CASE STUDY Assignment

Total gauge Management - CASE STUDY - Assignment ExampleThe aim is to find the solutions to the problems that the Company A met in the implementation of TQ to suggest alternative paths by assimilating the practiced quality management systems with others such(prenominal) as lean manufacturing, as introduced at MIT for producing quality care efficiently, Six Sigma including FEMA for reducing defects to near-zero along with ISO standards.Coming affirm to the question above, the most likely approach used for quality management systems and processing at a time when progress regarding improvement had plateaued was to put on hold further development until issues on the anteriority list were sorted out. This was also the expert review of the investigative parent companionship of Company A. Earlier, the company A had taken certain one-off advances which have provided leverages but setting them aside, otherwise the approach of management had been indorsement and doubtful.The management ap plied different parameters of saying something and doing differently such as quality was given the top(prenominal) priority in discussions but the actual preference was to reach production targets irrespective of quality considerations. Processes were neer completed for initiating new product leaving the scope of improvement in new product at later formats of manufacturing, which affected the cost factor leading to reduced returns. In this regard, it is important to know the stage of the new product where corrections are made as a new product at definition phase costs 1$, which if rectified at production stage costs constant of gravitation$. Being a manufacturing unit, the emphasis remains on meeting quality requirements, reliability, and process-control besides cost reduction while attending to engineering and manufacturing aspects of the products. In the given context, the Company A committed such errors more often, thus, increasing the cost of meeting quality benchmarks. Th e approach for quality management systems included new tools and techniques such as Statistical Process

Friday, April 26, 2019

International business article Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

International note word - Assignment ExampleLast June Bharti Aitel, Indias largest mobile provider, paid $9 billion to acquire the cellular operations of Kuwait Zain. One of the reasons for the acquisitions of Afri foundation companies is that compared to India the valuation of these companies are much more attractive. The Indians view Africa as a place they can where they can replicate the low-cost, high efficiency business model they have honed at home (Srivastava & Subramaniam). Africa has a trade of people that are eager to buy consumer goods. Consumer spending in Africa will double in the bordering decade to reach $1.8 trillion by the year 2020. The African people have been deprived of basal consumer goods for a long time and they are eager to increase participation in the consumer markets. Indian companies project Africa as a place they can continue to achieve growth due to the fact that business activity is slowing down at home. Indian companies also want to take advanta ge of the bring down regulatory requirement available for investors in Africa.The denomination mentions a lot of the advantages that the African continent represents for India businesses. It seems as if the Indian business people want to exploit the African market in order to alter their sales numbers and profitability. Africa is one of the sillyest regions in the entire world particularly the Sub-Saharan African region. The article was a bit one side as far as illustrating the advantages that Africa offered to India and not letting the proofreader know how Africa is going to benefit from the Indian involvement in Africa. Some of the large acquisitions mentioned in the article made a lot of sense from a business standpoint. Due to the fact that Africa has very poor infrastructure landlines are barely available. Most Africans that desire to communicate with each other must expend mobile technology. It would be smart the African mobile company to offer prepaid mobile run since they are cheaper to acquire which increases the amount

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Management Information Systems (MIS) Article Critique Research Paper

Management Information Systems (MIS) Article Critique - Research Paper exercisePopular internet companies argon ready for memory board foodstuff listing. This has created lot of activity in the stock exchange. There are three main forces which are driving this activity. First the advancement in engine room is making it very easy to start online business. Second the investors who are backing this activity are young, who fertilize online companies many options to choose from and the hold water factor is the involvement of global participants in general and Chinese firms in particular. The combined impact of these three factors is responsible for the phenomenal growth of internet found companies in last two to three years. There are also reliable and sound companies, who are interested in buying these online companies or their products. For some experts this trend in the market is dangerous as many companies are getting more value than normal. Investors are investing in untested products and impact of regulatory constitution by China is overlooked. If Chinese government starts to put restriction on internet companies then market could go down but like all bubbles it is time for investors to make money. The article is very swell written and the writer is able to present facts and figures along with tables to present the main theme that internet based companies are booming very fast.

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Should Sex Education be Mandatory in High Schools Research Paper

Should sexual activity Education be Mandatory in High Schools - Research composing ExampleFrom the paper it is clear thatdraws mixed reactions whenever it is brought up for discussion. Many be the tikes that emotions flare up amidst the conservatives and those who are of the same. It is, however, necessary to state the facts about devolve on education in high schools and specifically, teenage sex as it is so that at the end of the day people makes an informed opinion on this matter. Sex education in high schools is something, which should be embraced because of the value that this topic creates among those children who undergo such trainings. It is necessary that the limit information be available for the young minds so that they do not lose track as they try to experiment things on their own. It is common knowledge that the media nowadays have a lot of twist on the mindset of the teenagers.As the discussion stressesmost high school children are teenagers and they have nark t o the media, programs which portray sex as the best way out. There is a high level of tempt also from the internet with sites that have pornographic materials and contents yet with no restrictions, meaning that these young children hind end access the same with a lot of ease. Denying the vulnerability of our children and refuting sex education a chance in high schools is like turning a blind eye to the young minds and leaving them in a state of confusion. The high school children are still young and with the correct information about sex, these children are likely to grow up into responsible individuals with good sexual behavior.

Philosophy of Nursing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

school of thought of Nursing - Essay ExampleThe nurses make sure that caring for human beings, cuts across class divide, status, scat and culture.In the fast changing equation of society that has increasingly become multicultural, nursing perspectives towards people or patients, coming from diverse socio-cultural background, becomes vital ingredient of healthcare paradigms. Hence, nurses need to take especial care to deduce the cross cultural values to develop better nurse- patient relationship. They should inculcate positive attitude and cheer amongst patients and their family.In the contemporary environment of advancing technology and globalization, health and environment issues need to be redefined to get a line the challenges of the time. The biological determinants of health like age and genetic patterns are major factors that can be efficaciously met through traditional approach of healthcare system. Medical intervention and behavioral changes are effective measures of s aloon in such cases barring age related illnesses which the early care and change of lifestyle easily delays the process or diseases.The socio environmental factors that are hazardous to health have become huge cephalalgia for the masses. Smoking, drugs, fast food etc are external factors that are widely observed to contribute towards diseases like cancer, stroke, cardiac diseases and obesity. A holistic approach and collective actions from government and non government agencies must be adopted to defecate awareness amongst the people. Understanding and change in social attitude towards issues goes a long way to urge better health related results.My personal philosophy of nursing is primarily focused towards welfare of the patients utilise through informed choice, understanding and empathy that promotes mutual trust and confidence building with the patients. Nurses represent the high prototype of legal, ethical and moral consideration within the precinct of nursing paradigms a nd are equipped with

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Health communication Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

wellness communication - Essay Examplele control attained by obtaining referral to a specialist, which directly change recovery in those long-sufferings who felt the doctors measures to be directly pertinent to their personal distress. The close dealings of patient satisfaction, treatment established, and subsequent results need extra c beful thought in social studies.There exists an joust that while interpretive theoretical, frameworks have accredited a constitutive purpose to the function of communication in meaning formula not much concentration has been given to the manner in which social relations of effect act as a go-between in this process of meaning creation. Ideology, nonetheless, is a implemental heuristic concept that gives a way of contextualizing the communication procedure in such power relations. chat includes not only the procedure of generating meaning, but is also inherent to the means by which relations of power get produced and reproduced (Thomas, 2006 P. 116). The idea of ideology is presented as the abstract connection between communication and authority.The social construction is a key research standpoint in medical sociology. First, some ill health are entrenched with cultural meaning that is not directly resulting from the natural history of the condition, which shapes how society reacts to those troubled and impacts the work through of that ill health. Second, every illness has a social construction at the empirical level, based on how persons come to appreciate and survive with their sickness. Third, medical information about ill health and disease is not provided by nature but is created and developed by claims-makers and concerned parties. Social constructions provide a hearty counterpoint to medicines mainly deterministic approaches to illness and disease, and it can assist us carry policy discussions and choices.Sharing stories are becoming a powerful tool in the health profession, which helps to conflate and exchange knowledge. Sharing experiences

Monday, April 22, 2019

The Morality Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The worship - Case Study Exampled that by doing the right thing for the right reason, a psyches values and good desires become even more than solid if undergoing a similar bureau (Hamm 151). Simply put, morality of actions create less harm but not necessarily much more positive events for all parties involved (Brandt 58).As an example regarding morality is the raising of children in full cognizance of all things that are universally known to be moral and ethical. Parents can either choose to let others do it for them, by letting the children become aware of what is right or wrong, under the guidance of administration such as teachers, law enforcement officers, and the like. If the parents could possibly can, they could also teach their own children instead, and using their own words, ideas, beliefs as well as their own personal experiences, bring to them either simplified or complex judgement patterns that would be accepted by the society as moral and just. Still another way of training children would be by using the power of punishment in cementing the ideas of morality by association with pain, physically or otherwise. However, there is still a debate as to whether punishment would be able to pass around the message or not to younger folk (Hamm 114). Punishment could very much bring the idea of right or wrong but at times the effect would not last as long due to other factors that may well be outside of the sphere of influence of the home. Still, disdain the fact that children can be very much affected by anything from outside the home, parents would still be judged based on the actions of their offspring, thus bringing up the idea that parents have a greater moral obligation of raising children that would be functional and effective members of the society, rather than letting them grow up trick to the morals of the society.In relation to the purpose of moral obligations, another aspect of morality is the application of the concept of utilitaria nism, wherein the final result would justify the means by

Sunday, April 21, 2019

The Hulk and The Incredible Hulk Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The rear and The Incredible tower - Movie Review ExampleThe Hulk originated as a tops(p)hero in the Ultimate Marvels comic books and has since gained arena recognition and gained celebrity status as a movie hero. on that point has been much discussion and comparisons do between the 2003 Hulk Movie and the 2008 movie The Incredible Hulk and this will be discussed in this essay.It puts a life history to the character he was espouse after David Banner, his father, accidentally killed his mother after causation an explosion at his lab when the government closed it down due to discovering his dangerous experiments. Baby Bruce was adopted after his father became institutionalised in a mental hospital.The 2008 movie The Incredible Hulk was direct by Louis Leterrier and the Hulk/Dr Bruce Banner was played by Edward Norton. This movie was not to be viewed as a sequel to the 2003 painting and also rebooted the history of the character (Lee, 2008). Edward Norton was the screenwriter wh o rewrote the first draft written by Zak Penn, and attempted to base the story more on the Marvel Comic strip and the TV serial than the 2003 movie had been. In this movie the Hulk was developed as a military project, a super soldier as was the Hulks character in the Ultimate Marvels comic books.... The Los Angeles Time movie review called it Freud for Dummies (Dargis, 2003). There are comparisons also to make regarding the profits of the two movies. The Incredible Hulk in the US grossed $134,533,885 at the box office in its first 2 months compared to $132.2 million for the 2003 movie so whilst it appears both films were as successful inflation also has to be taken into account 1. The films both received mixed reviews and so The Incredible Hulk had to overcome the negativity that The Hulk had received and according to many critics did not come through its predecessor. In The Incredible Hulk an experiment goes wrong with Dr Bruce Banner being left with gamma radiation poisoning. B anner had been led to believe by General Thaddeus Thunderbolt Ross that the purpose of the experiment was to make humanness immune to gamma radiation poisoning and when the experiment fails Banners genes are mutated and he transforms into the Hulk. Like The Hulk film from 2003 the movie sees him avoiding capture by the military forces led by General Thunderbolt Ross. Dr Banner seeks refuge in Brazil where he seeks to find a cure for his condition. Both films provide histories for the character and similarities do obviously occur, his love affair with Betty, and the centre of the story being the alter ego of Dr Bruce. The comparisons lye in the narration of how the Hulk developed into the alter ego of Dr Bruce Banner and the experiences he had.Bibliography1 http//www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/id=incrediblehulk.htmDargis, Manohla. Hulk puts a Freudian spin on the dualities of human nature, but this monster is a little too mild New York Times (20th June 2003) eleventh November 2008

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Low risk 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Low luck 1 - Essay ExampleIf his right to grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would keep on entirely unforgiven.This means the pontiff has no power to prorogue sins. Only God can remit sins. What the Pope can do here is still to decl atomic number 18 to a individual that God has remitted their sins. Therefore, when the pontiff offers the sacrament of penance, he does not effect the penance himself, but lets the penitent know that God has remitted their guilt.This shows it is only God, who has the power to remove a persons sins. The Pope has no power to remove sin. What the Pope can do in this case, is only offer the sacrament of penance, after a person humbles and accepts their sins onwards the pope. However, the real penance comes from God.Canon law, including the penitential laws only applies to the living and not the pulseless. Therefore, the dead souls in the purgatory are not under the judgement of penitential canons. This means the Pope has no power t o remit the penalties owed by the souls in the purgatory, since the penitential laws do not apply to them. Either way, in case the souls in the purgatory fool any remorse, this is outside the power of the pope, and there is nothing he can do.This means when a person dies, they are released from penalties. The canon law then no longer holds them. The dead, by virtue of being dead are entitled to meltdom from all penalties, and this release from penalties is owed to God, and not to the Pope. Therefore, the Pope has no power to free the dead from their penalties, as God is responsible for

Friday, April 19, 2019

Analysis of Ethical Decision Making Literature review - 102

Analysis of good Decision Making - Literature review ExampleNevertheless, the ethical roles of managers ar that their decision-making processes be aimed at maximize the wealth of the shareholders and the stock in general. As such, the utilization of the ethics principal in decision-making processes ensure that the laws are strictly observed and that individuals have no chance to manipulate them through dubious activities such as corruption, fraud among others.Most businesses across the world have emphasized on ethical leadership which articulates that thither must be a confederacy of personal morality and professional morality in put together to generate an ethical decision-making process. In terms of personal morality, there must be a combination of characters such as honesty, trustworthiness, integrity among others. Similarly, the professional aspect should entail forthrightness in relation to the business and society at large. Additionally, morality involves behaviors such as doing the right things, being concern about the welfare of other people, and being open with issues.Consequently, managers are expected to practice various approaches that are related to ethical decision making such as egoism approach, deontology approach and utilitarianism approach which ought to serve as steering in their profession.An egoism approach in ethical decision making revolves around the actions of an individual pertaining to making a particular decision. It argues that any good action is best approved by an individual.

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Mutual Advantages For Trade Between Usa And Mexico Research Paper

Mutual Advantages For Trade Between ground forces And Mexico - Research Paper ExampleGoods were sold at high profit by the Americans. The minimum price of a good was 5 cents and 10 cents was considered to be an eighth of a dollar. This shows the devaluation of other currencies in comparison of the US Dollar was prevalent even then. 2 Benefits from Trade in the 18th Century The Santa Fe Trail developed into a complex web of international problem, social ties, tariffs and laws.3 The Americans exchanged merchandise, horses and oxen in return for silver bullions from the Mexicans initially. With deepening of friendly dealing and addition of trade mingled with the Americans and Mexicans, the variety and majority of trade grew, too. The shrewd Americans identified the need for cotton prints, factory products, latest gun and ammunitions and whiskey of the Mexicans, which they supplied profitably. On their return back home, they purchased wool, buffaloes, hides and horses, mules, gol d coins, gold dust and silver from the Mexicans which earned them great revenues, in turn. Thus, what followed was symbiotic relation betwixt the two countries through a series of trade transactions.4 Apart from the material reflection to these transactions, there were other benefits as well. Due to the long period of trade between these two countries relations formed between the white men and the native women of Mexico and many of them married these native women Dr. Eugene Leitensdorfer from Missouri, married a Mexican women named Soledad Abreu, who was the daughter of a former g everyplacenor of Mexico.. This proved to be advantageous for the Americans as these women worked as labor in their fur and skin trade. They also served as mediators between the Mexican men and their business partners.5 Americans who maintained good... However, after trade relations had lasted for a considerable period of time, the Mexicans began to wonder if the price for this growth was outweighing its benefits. It was evident that the Americans were gaining far more from the trade than the Mexicans. The net result was a transfer of wealth to the westernmost and by the time the Mexicans realized this, it was too late. The indigenous traders had been completely uprooted by the foreigners and the Americans exercised abundant power over the native markets.The congenial trade relations between the two countries have remained unchanged till this century. Mexico is the blink of an eye largest exporter of US exports and around 11% of its exports are from the US. It is also the third largest trading partner of US forming 10% of US imports and these figures are still rapidly increasing. Around 82% of Mexicos exports go to the US and the trade between them has grown in the last ten years. However, even today the US maintains trade advantages over Mexico as Mexico can never match the US in terms of efficiency and productivity. Thus, the exploitation of Mexico by the US to remains unchanged and the US is the ultimate gainer. It can be concluded that the trade relations between US and Mexico have remained strong from the 18th century along the Santa Fe Trail till bear witness day. The trade between them is highly disproportionate with the US reaping the maximum rewards. This scenario may be altered by the adoption of adequate policy measures by the Mexican government.

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

How meditation can help you become happier and healthier Annotated Bibliography

How supposition female genitalia help you become happier and healthier - Annotated Bibliography usageMost of the research done in the articles has strongly linked mindfulness meditation with neurology. In the article, meditation has been associated with heterogeneous health benefits. It describes a situation where an individual has been able to overcome pain resulting from degenerative osteoarthritis. Moreover, the said(prenominal) practice has been shown to help in relieving symptoms of some diseases such as hypertension and chronic pain. In addition, it has been shown to cannonball along the treatment of diseases such as anxiety, depression, and high blood pressure. The source is very useful in highlight the health benefits that are linked to one engaging in meditation. The source is objective as it is base on various scientific researches. The source will be significant in my research as it will help in proving the health benefit of those that actively takes part in interme diation.Freeman, David. Try This unanalyzable Meditation Method To Be Happier, Healthier & More Caring (PODCAST). Huffingtonpost.com. Web. 01 May 2015. .The article begins with noting how reasonful the mastermind is in terms of thinking and reasoning. The brain is also noted as giving human power to reflect on the past and also in controlling the emotions. In a research is done, mediation has been shown as a powerful way of stopping negative emotions and enhancing our resilience in the presence of various challenges that occur in life. It is seen as providing a chance for individual to interrogate their minds. As noted, it helps in increase awareness of our minds and the mental processes. Hence, in participation in mediation even at a hornswoggle duration enhances our mental focus as well as empathy and altruism. Consequently, it is described as an ingredient that can uplift one

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Introducing Sheltered Instruction Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Introducing Sheltered Instruction - move ExampleAccording to the research carried out by National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition, (2002), it is known that individually year proportion of non- English speaking students is increase at more rate than actual number. And many another(prenominal) submits are not up to that level to deliver language and other services that these immigrant students actually need. As per the work by Moss & Puma (1995), Ruiz-de-Velasco (2000) & Fix and Waggoner (1999), these students live less grades and high dropout rate as compared to US-born students in spite of having high attendance rate. It is evident from these studies that most schools are not satisfying the requirement of educating linguistically and culturally diverse students. To achieve high levels of educational standards and accommodate the requirement of No Child left-hand(a) Behind profess (2001), federal and state governments expect all students to have adjusted nationa l and state assessments. English learners enter U.S schools with wide range of language proficiencies and subject matter knowledge, based on their background, socioeconomic status, age of arrival and personal experiences. To succeed students with varieties of criteria the teacher development, program design, curriculum and materials, and chargeal and assessment practices should be modified. This paper will address especially strategies for improving teacher development and instructional practices.Many standards have been ... High-stake test has been adopted in many states as result of No Child Left Behind Act (2001). This was benefited to English learning students as teachers and schools concentrated on overall progress, including LEP students, so as to reach benchmarks laid. In spite of these many adaptation, students exit before they become proficient in academic English collect to several reasons.First reason is being standardized test designed for US born students, EL students at beginning level found it difficult to meet criteria as they muckle not read, lay aside or speak English fluently. Thus program failed to confirm that EL students learn academic satiate primarily, with learning English. Second reason for failure of high-stack tests was lack of certified ESL and bilingual teachers. To compensate this shortage, principals started hiring less- certifiable teachers, using substitutes, canceling courses, increasing class size, or asking teachers to teach outside their field of preparation.The Sheltered Instruction Approach and SIOP molding The growth in numbers of students learning English as an additional language and the shortage of qualified ESL and bilingual teachers raised the need of sheltered content instruction approach.sheltered instruction is an approach that can extend the time students have for getting language support services while giving them a jump-start on the content subjects they will need for graduation (Echevarria, 2004, p.10) .It is not a set of instruction techniques need to added or replaced by teachers original techniques, but an approach that complements those methods and strategies. Sheltered Instruction Observation communications protocol (SIOP) model has been designed for flexibility and confirmed with wide range of classroom

Importance of Wearing a Condom Essay Example for Free

Importance of Wearing a Condom EssayThe aim of utilize a condom is to ensure that there is no contact between the sexual fluids that come from a mans penis and the sexual fluids, blood or lining inside his first mates body (vagina or anus). Using a condom prevents transmission of sexually transmitted diseases/illnesses (STIs) from man to adult female and from woman to man or from man to man. Using a condom prevents unwanted pregnancy and allows couples to picture when they give up children.If used correctly, a condom stops human immunodeficiency virus passing from an infected person (who may not know he or she is infected) to an uninfected person. Condoms can also stop someone with human immunodeficiency virus being re-infected with the virus. Without a condom, STIs and HIV can pass from one body to another man or woman. During penetrative intercourse without a condom (in other words, where sexual fluids mix as a prove of contact between genitals), a mans body can pick up HIV from an infected partner or a womans body can pick up HIV from an infected partner.Condom use is always crucial because HIV and some other STIs have no symptoms they are invisible. Another advantage is that condoms delay ejaculation, increase the length of penetrative sexual stuffiness and pleasure. Many people have already contracted HIV. Using condoms correctly can protect them from re-infection and from increasing their viral load. Condoms also keep their partners or spouses safe from infection during intercourse.Condoms, used properly and with confidence (every time) * jakes prevent (re-)infection from many STIs, including HIV. * Can protect fertility (some STIs, with few evident symptoms, can cause antisepsis in women and men). * Can enable you to plan pregnancy or prevent it. * Can help you evacuate anxiety and risk and let you choose health, safe pleasure and to care for your body (whatever sex you are) and for your partners body (whatever sex they are).

Monday, April 15, 2019

Cultural Context Essay Example for Free

Cultural Context striveEven though verbalism is usu altogethery considered as originally the activity of men and machines in digging, moving, shaping, erecting, and so forth, the relational theatrical role of signifiering materials by the construction industry far exceeds its sh ar in the taxation domestic product. Specifically is construction of great signifi bungholece for that special class of materials more or lesstimes called as the physical-structure materials, which make major things of human civilization. Out of these physical-structure materials the more or less(prenominal) long-lasting and reliably shaped ar wood and cover. They be basic mental synthesis materials for thin-shell crownwork construction, walls, tanks, large-diameter pipes, runways, highway bridges and many opposite(a) structures. main Body Concrete is related to the most(prenominal) signifi layaboutt make technologies in twentieth and the early cardinal first century. However, other si gnificant building materials, such(prenominal) as wood, also figure in the construction picture. The poured method of cover building has been so improved that buildings of this material are now erected as rapidly as a wood structure.Engineering departments all over the world are now inclined(p) to assist engineers, architects and builders to apply cover and wood to their construction work. Increasingly in the beginning of the twentieth century, when builders were asked how they should build the foundation possessing good physical force-out, their answer was cover. Either by placing the make frame upon concrete foundations or by placing it upon a more spacious concrete raft foundation, architectural constructors in most cases accompaniment steel with concrete as a problem-solving building material.By reinforcing concrete with steel rods, or by using steel machinery to form concrete blocks as prefabricated building blocks, builders further diversified their architectural tec hniques. The most approved small-arm of concrete for general construction consists of a mixture of broken limestone, granite or orderly screened mixture of rock fragments, clean coarse sand and cementum, in such proportions that the voids between the stone are completely filled by the sand and the voids in the sand completely filled with cement, with a subtile excess of cement to guarantee a perfect connection with the stone.To create top-quality concrete, manufacturers need evenly high-grade cement. By 1900 approximately three-quarters of that material was Portland cement, named after the tiny island of Portland in the U. K. where a desirable limestone employ in its manufacture was descovered. In 1824 Joseph Aspdin, from Leeds, was the first to provide the world with Portland cement, but after 1872 the material was produced in the United States and its popularity spread rapidly (Collins, 1998).At the 1876 Philadelphia Exhi turnion, American Portland cement was displayed to the public as a usable and practical building material, but output signal only began in earnest in 1880 and domestic cement only began to overtake European imports in 1897, by which time American machinery for crushing aggregate and qualification concrete had also begun to substitute European machines, even in Europe itself (American Exporter, 1906, 58 (3), pp. 79-87). Wood structures can be constructed more quickly and inexpensively than other kinds.Wood still is used for finish flooring in the living areas of about four out of five homes, although plastic tiles and other materials are gaining ground. b kickoff out of the weewee generally involves both the visible flooring and a subflooring. Most frame houses utilize boards for subflooring, but plyboard is gaining ground. In buildings which use concrete beams, concrete flooring slabs are generally poured right along with the beams. blade structures whitethorn be floored with poured concrete or with precast concrete or gypsum sla bs.Roofs of houses, which have a timber framework and cladding, are likely to have as the foundation wooden board, plywood, or composition planking. However, the current general tendency in home building toward flat, or low-pitched, roofs has led to a partial shift from tile, wood, and asbestos tiles to concrete materials and poured concrete. Because of its important role in residential buildings, wood does only slightly less well than concrete. Although its proportional cost has increased with time, it is still the most popular building material all over the world.The open-grained wood of any of numerous coniferous trees, such as pine and cedar, as rattling(a) from that of a dicotyledonous tree, enters the English home as framing, siding, shingles, finishing panels, sash, millwork, and boarding, used to cover the wall studding or roof joists of a timber frame the wood of any of numerous broad-leaved dicotyledonous trees, such as oak, beech, ash, etc. principally as flooring, ma terial used for making panels, and trim.In non-residential buildings, wood is coiffe to practice as the most widely used building material for concrete formwork, railroad ties, surround poles, railings, fences, and many other purposes (BLAIRSLTD). The chief advantages of wood in construction industry include its ease of production and of process by which wood is packaged and transported, its low thermal conductivity, and its strength-to-weight ratio (which is greater than that of cast iron and is identical to that of the stronger concretes) (Rowell 9).Yet, because of its peculiar weaknesses as an organic material, such as vulnerability to fungi and various insects, its relative lack of versatility in terms of design, and its long-term rise in price in comparison with concrete, the relative role of wood as a building material may to some degree descend in the future, and further switch may be projected. If considered as a structural material in large building construction, wood h as already been largely replaced by concrete framing, brick or concrete walls, and concrete floors.This trend will in all probability continue in the future. On the other part, wood framing probably will retain its dominating position in the residential building, although giving way a bit to steel, concrete, perhaps aluminium, and machinate panel method of building. The advantages of metal roof frameworks are gradually reducing the measuring of wood required for roof structures. Moreover, for out-of-door trimming wood is being change magnitudely substituted by brick exterior and by panels of such building materials as asbestos, metal, and organic materials with a polymeric structure.Dry wall building and the utilisation of gypsum plasterboard and of metal lath are also considerably lessening the need for wood. The most important role for wood is probably in finished flooring, but there are modern trends toward replacement of composition and various types of synthetic materials even in living areas. Wood, like steel, is yielding to aluminum as the leading building material for window frames, door frames, doorways, trim, and other such purposes.In concrete building the formwork is tending change from wood to steel and plywood and also to plastics. Growing popularity of plywood and of laminated structural members may slow down the trend away from wood. Laminated wood arches, structural frameworks of wood, and roof systems have proved inhibit for spanning distances up to 120 feet, and, because of their attractive and pleasant appearance, are today in frequent use in the building of churches and temples, buildings for public gatherings or meetings, shopping areas, and the similar places.Plywood, which to some degree possesses more physical strength than lumber, may replace lumber in almost any of its uses it is already extensively used in subflooring, boarding, interior panelling, concrete forms, and so forth. Thus, it may be expected to grow in total use at almost twice the rate predicted for lumber. Use of concrete in building is constantly increasing today. It is a changeable mixture of portland cement, fine aggregates (almost always sand), and coarse aggregates (crushed stone, gravel, cinder, slag, or whatever else is available deep down a particular area).The proportions of these ingredients are influenced by the particular use to which the concrete is to be intended, but they are at most times 124. As can be seen, cement is the small component in this mixture. The fact that concrete is the most extensively used building material can be explained by its advantages related to wood among which are versatility, its high breaking strength relative to bricks and other kinds of masonry materials, the low price which makes it comparatively inexpensive material relative to structural steel, and in essence the forepart of concrete components almost in all areas (Classic Encyclopaedia).The main uses of concrete in England are in dams, wat er tanks, pipes and sewers, heavy walls, piers, caissons, columns, and road and sidewalk pavements. In addition, concrete is utilised in the form of units cast in a particular form before being used in building, such as concrete blocks and cast stone, whose principal advantage over wood, brick, and structural tile is that they are costing relatively little.Because of the low flexural strength of concrete, it is combined with steel in most of its construction applications (Classic Encyclopaedia). This combination is do possible by the match of coefficients of thermal expansion of these materials. The amount of reinforcing steel rods, wire, wire-mesh, and so forth needed for a concrete structure is only one-third to one-half the amount needed for a similar completely steel structure.In England, the possibilities of this technique of construction are just beginning to extend its use beyond monolithic complex constructions. The chief disadvantages of reinforced concrete (also known a s ferroconcrete or armoured concrete) in comparison with structural steel are the time and costs of construction, even if one takes account of the applying paints to the find of steel members and their trimming. It is costly to build and remove forms, shores, and temporary metal or wooden frameworks.Most of the developments, which been made not long ago, in methods of concrete building are somehow related to reducing expenditure on forms, First, as an alternative to the traditional lumber and plywood, steel and more recently, plastic with fibrous field to confer additional strength forms have been experimented. Plastics are especially showing great promise, in look of the fact that they are smooth and easily utilised, able to keep water, may be given eccentric shapes, and may be use again and again from fifteen to twenty times.Second, slip-form pavers have been successfully sedulous in laying road pavements (Green 1-2). Third, precasting of concrete members has been used as a mass production technique and to provide solid and robust in construction, more unchanging in form concrete, but presents some transportation problems. Fourthly, so-called tilt-up construction and lift-slab construction has permitted walls, floors, and columns to be poured on a horizontal surface and thusly either tilted or lifted into place.Finally, able to be used more than once, adjustable space steel trusses have removed the need for the multiple strengthening which differently has to be placed down the stairs the conventional built-up forms. The faster such form-saving processes are improved and used by engineers and constructors, the faster steel concrete is likely to be used as a structural material. One more limitation of commonplace concrete is its low heat insulation value.That is why concrete walls are occasionally of a non-load bearing, sandwich type, being composed of a layer of insulating material cast between two concrete slabs. In this application, concrete is to a serious degree threatened by other types of curtain walls, including various types of sandwiches. alternate way to give concrete protecting properties is to make it with relatively light weight aggregates such as vermiculite, expanded cadaver, and so forth.In this form, it not any more has sufficient quality of being physically strong to be used for load bearing purposes, although it has been very well utilised in long-span roof building. Prestressed concrete has gotten great significance as a building material. The basic characteristic of prestressed concrete is that, by compressing concrete and keeping it under condensation, the tensile stresses caused by loads are neutralized (CEMENT). The compression is accomplished by casting the concrete around stretched rods or cables, the tension on which is released as the concrete sets.A prestressed beam needs only one-fourth the weight of the steel and one-half the weight of concrete which is needed to support the same load by a usual reinforced concrete member. Although it was procure by a San Francisco engineer in 1886, prestressed concrete did not emerge as an accepted and legal building material until a half-century later. Since then it had been intensively used in Europe for structural purposes. Up to the present moment, prestressed concretes applications have been limited mostly to pipes, tanks, runways, and from time to time highway bridges.As engineers and constructors gain experience and manage to reduce the manufacturing expenses, prestressing may become competitive with steel and with reinforced concrete building. After weighing up all the factors, the trend is more toward a substitution of concrete for other building materials than of other building materials for concrete. The use of portland cement which is made by heating a slurry of clay and crushed chalk should more than double in the next decades, may presumably triple, and at its last is expected to become greater by at least one-third.

Sunday, April 14, 2019

An analysis of television chat shows Essay Example for Free

An analysis of television cackle renders Essay television chat orders atomic number 18 likely the favourite genre of the volume of daytime viewers, with the schedule sound to bursting allude with them, at that place argon few channels that arrangement fewer than two chat shows on a daily basis. There be few times when you can switch on your television and the try not be filled with the smiling faces of a chat show boniface and his knobs. There are a wide range of chat show styles but they all conform to the same elemental conventions. The conventions are that the waiter is famous and often comes from a journalistic background and their show is key outd after them.The invitees are famous volume and come on to the shows to promote themselves etc. the set is basic with just a few chairs and sometimes a table and as well there is an hearing who are in the studio apartment watching the show live. In the traditional style chat shows these conventions are followed as if they were law. In the newer forms of chat shows these rules arent followed as pixilatedly. Although they have a host, guest and audition there set is not basic and is full of props such as computers and fake plants to add effect.The purpose of this assignment is to analyse and explore a traditional chat show in the style of Parkinson and a new-age style chat show in the form of Friday Nights All Wright Michael Parkinson is assuredly the finest example of a traditional British television chat show host. His show Parkinson is well respected, highly respective and ultra orthodox and is produced by the B. B. C. his reputation exceeds him and this is echoed by the shows status. The way that Parkinson dresses in any case reflects the style and status of the show. As well as the dress code of the show, the title sequence is in any case very modern.The title sequence is an integral part of the show because it is the first thing that is seen by the viewers, so it willing have to display the style and reputation of the show as well as invoke to the much(prenominal) mature viewers which is the shows intended audience. The title sequence for Parkinson consists of numerous still shots of previous guests such as Billy connel1y and Heather Mills-McCartney smiling and looking relaxed and comfortable. Some of the shots are posed but the majority look as if they were haltn during the show, this gives the audience the idea the guests are normal people and that the show is in a very relaxing environment.As the title sequence comes to an end we are presented with a collage of celebrities faces which them form a real still shot of Parkinsons face and this then goes in to a dispel and into the show. The music use to accompany the point-blanking title sequence is classy, cheerful and has a big stripe feeling, which I think would appeal to the viewers of the show because generally the people who watch the B. B. C are from the older generation and are therefore mo re conservative than the viewers of I. T. V. Parkinsons entrance is stylish and super acid.He enters at the top of a staircase to the theme music from the show and walks slowly to his seat this grand entrance is a convention of a typical television chat show. It is at this point that it becomes work who is in charge of the show. Compared with this grand entrance the entrances of Parkinsons guests are mediocre. Elton john entrance is from the side of the stage probably because he had just been performing his latest song. When Parkinson introduces Elton john he is full of compliments and the phraseology he uses is full of flattery. He refers to Elton john as a superstar of Rock and Roll and lately ennobled.This may be apply to make Elton feel relaxed and assured. He uses these phrases so that the audience will have to envisage who the guest is and this will help to create suspense amongst the audience because he does not mention his guests name until the end of his monologue. A fter Elton takes his seat his body language is quite defensive with his hands clenched unneurotic and he doesnt look straight at his interviewer. Parkinsons body language shows that he is confident and open and I also think it shows he is experienced. He sits with a straight back and his hands are open palms up on his lap.Parkinsons opening question to Elton is whats up I think this simple question is used to direct the interviewee to the reason for his appearance on the show. It also shows that although Parkinson uses formal language his language can also include some Yorkshire dialect. Elton John answers politely and hints at why he is on the show. The body language of Parkinson is open and appealing, this is so that the guest will feel relaxed in his company and will answer his questions more openly. Eltons body language shows that e is defensive and doesnt want to reveal too much to his host.The style of unbelieving used by Parkinson is set so that it would help Elton to open up and become more confident in the answers he gives. Although the questions were probably agreed before the show they will still tell the audience what they want to know about the guest. Elton Johns appearance on the show in terms of his reasons for being on the programme fulfil the conventions of a chat show because he is on the show to promote something that he is doing at the moment in his career and one of the conventions of a chat show is that the guest in famous and appears on the show to promote there career.The set for the show is simple yet sophisticated. It has a pale blue background which is used to relax the interviewee and it gives the studio a modern look. Also there is a hint of pink which would make the studio warm and homely. The guest and host sit close together separated only by a small table. The guests who had appeared earlier on in the show sit further away from the host but they are still quite close. There are probably four cameras used to film this show. On e camera will cover both(prenominal) host and guest, this would be used when the host is asking a question.Two cameras would cover the host and his guest individually, these cameras would be used to show the person who is speaking. The final camera is used to cover all four people that are on the stage. Most of the cameras are fixed and would just cut from shot to shot passim the show. When the guest is speaking they would use a big close-up to show their facial expressions and emotions. The audience only move into in the show when a guest or the host enters onto the stage or when a guest finishes a performance.Ian Wright is a light weight chat show host when compared with Parkinson. His show Friday nights all Wright is not as well known as Parkinson and it is targeted towards the younger generation viewers. It is not a very conservative show which is a characteristic of the house style of I. T. V 1 which is not a conservative channel. His reputation as a chat show host is limit ed but his reputation as a footballer is legendary. Ian Wrights dress code reflects the style of the show. He is wearing a black neat sleeved t-shirt and imitation leather pants.The style of the show is also tacky compared to the sophisticated Parkinson. In the clip Ian Wright comes onto the show to loud music, this music is similar to the type of music played in night clubs and it gives the impression that this show is modern. Prince Naseem enters onto the stage accompanied by the same loud music played when he enters the boxing ring. He goes straight to Ian Wright and high-fives him and then he goes into the audience and interacts with them. He walks through the audience and plays up to them and shakes hands with them.When he returns to the stage he once again high fives Wright. When he takes his seat naseem sits with his mail open wide, this show that he is confident and cocky. The opening question asked by Ian Wright is so why did it take you so long to get in the ring? he us es this question as a magic to make naseem feel at home. He also adds talk to me in a Jamaican emphasis to make the audience laugh. The language used throughout the show is slang and it is not very sophisticated and this echoes the style of the show.The set is cheap and simple with a fake brick wall background to give a feel of the inside of a house and there is a mural of the country side on another wall which I think is supposed to give a calming and relaxing effect. The host sits on a simple purple leather chair with a table with a C. C. T. V screen on top of it. Then there is another simple purple sofa for the guest to sit on. There are two steps down from the stage and in this area the audience sit in groups on simple chairs around small tables as if they were in a ginmill or night club.In the corner of the studio there is a cage containing football fans. I think that there are probably three cameras, the first is at the back of the studio and is used to show the guest, host and audience together and the second and third cameras are used so that both the host and guest have individual shots when they are speaking. The audience participate more in this show than in Parkinson because they shake hands with the guest when he enters and also they laugh a lot more than in Parkinson and the laughing is not forced as it often is in Parkinson.The most effect of these two chat shows is probably Parkinson because it will appeal to a wider audience than Friday nights all Wright and also the guest will be more sophisticated and well known than those on Ian Wrights show. Out of the two chat shows I think I prefer Parkinson because there is a wider range of guests and the guests are often in the news program at the time so I like to hear there views on current affairs.

Friday, April 12, 2019

Archetype Research Project Essay Example for Free

Archetype Research Project EssayArchetypes ar An inherited thinking or mode of thought in the psychology of C. G. Jung that is derived from the experience of the race and is present in the unconscious mind of the individual ( specimen). Archetypes be central in all cultures across the world and can provide grave littleons and outlooks on the common aspects of human life. The journey, is an pilot light in which the principal(prenominal) character is in search of few sort of truth and typically faces some(prenominal) difficult foot races along the way, this can be both physiologic and mental. While going through these trials a kind of hell is reached and the character must attempt to move in their way gage to society. Though the journey is not always well liked due to its unilluminated and serious nature, it provides self-confidence and shows society how to react to difficulties they may face in life. This pilot light can be found in slightly different forms in the t hree storys Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bront, The Odyssey by mark, and The Plague by Albert Camus. Each author uses the pattern, the journey, to express their give birth thoughts they create an overall root word or message to settle their readers.Jane Eyre was written in 1847 by Charlotte Bront. The novel follows Jane Eyre from her childhood as the family scapegoat, through her schooling at a poorly managed charity school, and later when she becomes a governess and falls in go to sleep with her employer, Mr. Rochester. Janes journey is in search of the love and acceptance of others, she goes through many trials before reaching her goal. The theme that Bront creates using the pilot of the journey is In times of sturdyship you must persevere and not lose sight of yourself and your morality while striving to find happiness. This is one of the most important messages that she is sending to her readers through Jane Eyre. She does this by endowment multiple examples of Janes streng th.One example of Janes strength is when she struggles to regain her since of dignity and self-worth afterward discovering, on her wedding day, that Mr. Rochester was already married. This is the most devastating part of Janes journey however her reaction to the web site is what builds the theme. Laws and principles are not for the times when at that place is no temptation they are for such moments as this, when be and soul rise in mutiny once morest their rigour stringent are they inviolate they shall be (Bront 369). Jane is real tempted to just give in to her weaknesses but she regains her composure and continues her struggle. Janes strength is also shown when she leaves Thornfield the night after the wedding. But I was soon up crawling forwards on my hands and knees, and then again raised to my feet as eager and as determined as ever to reach the road (Bront 374). At this point Janes emotional turmoil has gone as far as to cause sensible weakness. Which, she also finds co urage to overcome. Bront uses Janes strength of morals and self-respect in times of trial to contract her theme across to her readers.The importance of her perseverance throughout the novel is solidified in the fact that her torment pays off in the end with a happy conclusion after Mr. Rochesters wife is dead. I hold myself supremely blestblest beyond what language can express because I am my husbands life as fully is he is mine (Bront 522). Jane would have been very unhappy if she had given in to her weaknesses before she matte morally sound in doing so. This shows how significant her waiting was in securing her happiness in the end.Charlotte Bront used the archetype of the journey in Jane Eyre to impact the reader by illustrating the importance of maintaining your moral standards and since of self-worth through times of trial and hardship when you are most prone to weakness. She has exemplified this through the strength and persistence of her main character, Jane.The Odyssey wa s written by Homer around 700 B.C. It is an epic that tells the story of Odysseus, a man who must make his way back home from war to his wife and son. His journey home however is delayed by a serial publication of trials and while he is away suitors take over his household. Odysseus has been a role mould not barely in Greek culture but all around the world. Homer uses the characters reactions to the trials that are typical to the archetype of the journey to show the need for determination, hope and strength in the face of hardship.As Odysseus goes through the many challenges of his journey his perseverance is put to the test. One of these occasions is when Odysseus and his crew are within sight of Ithaca, but the curiosity of his crew causes them to be thrown severely off course and pushed back many years in their journey. And I woke up with a start, my spirit churning should I leap over the incline and drown at once or grit my teeth and bear it, stay among the living? I bore it all, held firm, hiding my face, clinging tight to the decks (Homer 10. 55-58). True strength is shown by Odysseus here due to the fact that it is oppressed with the dramatic irony of almost reaching your goal then being set back to the beginning. Homer uses Odysseuss will to continue on and not give up to show the determination necessitate to overcome a trial such as this.Odysseus is not the only character in The Odyssey that the archetype of the journey applies to. Telemachus, Odysseuss son, also goes through a journey and discovers darker truths as he searches for news of his fix and watches the suitors tear apart his house. But for me the gods have spun out no such joy, for my father or myself. I must bear up, thats all (Homer 3.236-238). Homer presents Telemachus much like his father, always determined to confirm moving forward redden when it seems all is against him.The archetype of the journey is constantly full of challenges and often disappointment. Odysseus comments o n what he has learned of the nature of life and hardship. But then, when the happy gods bring on the long hard times, bear them he must, against his will, and steel his heart. Our lives, our mood and mind as we pass across the earth, turn as the days turn (Homer 18. 154-157). Odysseus has learned this lesson from experience and his calm warnings and advice on the subject contribute to the theme of the necessity of strength when it comes to the archetype of the journey.In relation to the archetype the journey Homer uses The Odyssey to create a theme of resilience and determination when encountering struggles and trials. This is created through the way that the characters handle hardship with their lives. Odysseus is a major role model whose success and failures can easily be learned from.The Plague was written by Albert Camus in 1947 the novel relates the story of a metropolis falling into and later recovering from an epidemic of plague. Each character has his own ad hominem intere sts but as the plague progresses and the gates of the city are closed, fighting the plague becomes everyones main interest. The entire town goes through an archetypal journey with each characters experiences differing in their own ways. When a group of citizenry is suffering, each person has a duty to think more of the group and less of individual desires everyone has to try to help others. It is the few people who fulfill that duty who make the difference for the all told of the community in the end.As the first few cases began to arise, nonexistence wanted to admit the high take of danger that came with them. Due to the towns lack of experience with the plague things move slowly at first and no one really knows what to do. Despite this confusion and lack of knowledge it is important that there are a few people who are always fighting to make progress. No, we should go forward, look for our way through the darkness, stumbling perhaps at times, and try to do what good lay in ou r indicator (Camus 205). Camus shows the absolute need for action even when nobody is quite sure what to do. The town is urged to forget own(prenominal) matters to devote themselves to following blind determination.After months of plague it becomes obvious to the townsfolk that they are all in the situation together and that they are in the same amount of risk even though nobody wanted to acknowledge it out loud. No longer were there individual destinies only a incorporated destiny, made of plague and emotions shared by all (Camus 151). The atmosphere of the pick situation has made personalised interests unimportant and the survival and health of the community the main point of the peoples lives.As the city of Oran attempts to regain its stability its citizens sacrifice their personal feelings such as love to go into a survival mode. Evening after evening gave its truest, mournfulest expression to the blind endurance that had outlasted love from all our hearts (Camus 168). sig ht have become so engrossed in the plague and its effect on their lives that emotions like love are pushed to the back of the mind. Camus stresses the fact that in order for a community to endure, personal sacrifice is necessary.The Plagues main theme in relation to the archetype of the journey is that personal sacrifice may be needful in order for a community to go through a journey and still concur in the end. It can also be seen that hope is necessary when you are faced with hardship even if you are completely lost and in the dark.All three novels, Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bront, The Odyssey by Homer, and The Plague by Albert Camus have strong examples of the journey archetype. Each tells a story of trials, hardship, and suffering. Jane Eyre focuses largely on Janes personal development and the challenges that she faces in her everyday life. Bronts main theme is to not lose sight of who you are when things get tough in contrast to the ideas behind The Plague which call for almost an exact glacial due to the community setting in which the journey takes place. The Odyssey is more about a since of strength and endurance, though Odysseuss emotions are evident and are very important in maintaining his will to continue difficult to reach home, they do not dominate the scene like in Jane Eyre and The plague.The journey archetype is very important in giving people insight to possible life situations. By schooling about a characters development while going through a journey it is easy to effect their achievements and failures. This makes these types of situations easier to handle when they come up in real life later on because the reader has already been warned of what to do and what not to do. The main characters of a story focused on an archetypal journey are also inspirational and can provide the same hope and determination by giving people a they did this so I can too type of attitude toward lifes challenges.

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Income elasticity of demand Essay Example for Free

Income elasticity of demand EssayLuxury product gross sales pressurize in the emerging securities industrying similar mainland China, which has extraordinary growth and bullnecked potential consumers for the victimization of sumptuousness goods in the China market. With gradually lower and lower increase of revenue in the European countries, Louis Vuitton (abridged as LV in the following sections) commits itself to set up more than(prenominal) than stores in China. However, LV is faced with the problems of declining loot in China, which urges it to adjust its entry strategy into the China market.In this case, this report go out focus on distinguishing the factors that illustration LVs development in China and personateing out schemes for LVs entry into China market by initially examining the inside and away environment for LV analyzing the available contrive for LVs entry into China based on the environment exam, and generating an action plan for LVs entry str ategy at the end of the report.Content 1. 0 Introduction Louis Vuitton (abridged as LV in the following sections) is planning to set up more stores in the China market. However, it is directly faced with the problems of declining profits in China, which urges it to adjust its entry strategy into the China market.In this case, this report is to lay out schemes for LVs entry into the China market by distinguishing the home(a) and external factors that influence LVs development from the perspectives of country factors and internal advantages of LV with reference to the SWOT analysis model analyzing the operational plan for LVs entry into China based on the environment examination and including suggests on quick strategy, organization structure and management, entry strategy and modes, manufacturing management, marketing plan, and accounting as to the highest degree as financemanagement and generating an action plan for LVs entry strategy at the end of the report according to the s pecifications of the business operational plan. 2. 0 Research Methods The research method of literature searches is adopted to generate this report. This method is chosen because there are plenty of existing studies on the development of luxuriousness goods, which makes it possible for abundant literature searches.Also, there are a great many resources on the annual reports of Louis Vuitton available which offer insights into the financial performance of this beau monde. Anyway, luxury goods are indeed possessed by the majority of people, which makes direct interviews or surveys less available. 3. 0 Findings External and Internal Environment The internal and external factors that influence LVs development will be examined in this section from the perspectives of country factors and internal advantages of LV.A SWOT analysis will be involved in this section, which aims to find out the strength, weakness, luck and threat of the company according to analysis on the internal conditio ns of the company and the external environment the company is faced with (Johnson Scholes, 2002, p122). 3. 1 External environment Country factor analysis The external environment for LVs entry into China will be discussed in terms of the politics and government insurance policy of China, the economy and the China market, the social culture and transportation of China, and will be concluded from the perspectives of opportunities and threats for LVs entry into China.In terms of politics and government policy, China is now actively opening up to the world and enhancing trade relationships with world scrapes since the reform and opening up policy. In terms of the economy and the China market, according to Yuval and Vinay and Cathy (2011), the analysts of Mckinsey quarterly, China has increase booming urban cities including the second- and third-tier cities and the world second-largest GDP which means strong acquire power the China consumers for luxury goods and great market potentia ls (para 8).They also pointed out that by 2015, Chinese consumers will account for more than 20 percent of the global luxury market. On the other hand, the large market potential has drawn a host of luxury-goods companies to enter the China market, which makes the competition fiercer and fiercer. And it is troublesome for LV that there are plenty of phony goods imitating LVs style prevailing in China, which are actually not likely to reduce LVs high gear-end consumers, but would exert negative influences on consumers image and awareness of LV.In terms of social culture, for one thing, the China consumers are attracted by middle- and high-end products and somehow more attracted by French luxury goods, and they believe that the higher the price, the better the caliber (Yuval, Vinay and Cathy, 2011, para7) (Exhibit 1). For another thing, the conventional integrity of thrift is rooted in the mindset of the Chinese, with which some of the wealthy in China indicate that they would not spend a large sum of money to get a product.(Exhibit 1) (Chinese consumers increasingly prefer internationally well-known brands. Retrieved on Jan 3rd 2013 from http//www. mckinseyquarterly. com/Tapping_Chinas_luxury-goods_market_2779) In terms of transportation, glorylines are increased like the Emirates group which launched air routines in the main cities of China, and railway transportation as well as road transportation is more and more available, making it convenient and fast for cross-national transportation.Therefore in conclusion, the opportunities for LVs entry into China can be concluded as Chinas encouraging policies on foreign brands entering into China Chinas booming urban cities and increasing middle- and upper- class consumers with strong purchasing power Chinese consumers purchasing preference for French high-end products and the more and more convenient cross-national transportation in China.While the threats for LVs entry into China entail the fierce competit ion from the colleague companies and brands the trouble coming from increasing produced counterfeit products imitating LV in China China consumers cautious traditional views on luxury goods purchasing. Anyway, when it comes to China consumers rational attitude towards luxury goods purchasing, it may be an opportunity for LV if it succeeds in drawing out their desires and needs for LVs products, otherwise it may turn out to be a threat for LVs expansion in China.3. 2 Internal environment Based on national direct and firm level 3. 2. 1 Internal environment based on national level The advantages of internal environment for LV on national level lie in the its preference and prospect to greatly expand its business in China, its experiences of operating in China market for about twenty years, and its strong influence on and temptation to the China consumers, as well as customer loyalty for it.On the contrary, the disadvantages lie in its high price which will greatly influences China co nsumers will to purchase the products, and in its could-be easily imitated appearance and style which is made used of by some China manufacturers in producing fake goods. 3. 2. 2 Internal environment based on firm level 3. 2. 2. 1 The nature of LVs products Dubois and Czellar and Laurent (2001) delineated Luxury goods as products with extraordinary quality as well as high price, rareness and uniqueness, aesthetic appeal, respectful long history, and the sense of being superior to others (p156).Yacine and Johnathan and Motohiro (2004) argued that luxury goods manual crafting and attention should be involved into the manufacturing and designing of luxury goods (para 2). Based on these studies, the nature of LVs products can be heedless as unique, rare, and excellent-quality, and extraordinary. 3. 2. 2. 2 Industry characteristics of luxury goods Kapferer (1996) suggested that luxury industry distinguishes the needs and demands of the wealthy people like prominent social figures, and produce unique superior products for them, which acts like a status symbol for the rich (p251).While Heine (2010) stated that the luxury industry is also fashion-oriented and high-quality guaranteed. And it is closely associated with the needs of the wealthy. Judging from these studies and the advancement of luxury products nowadays, the industrial characteristics of luxury products can be concluded as extraordinary quality with high guarantee, exceedingly personalized with unique designed style, strong brand recognition and customer loyalty, and highly profitable sales based on its high price.3. 2. 2. 3 Advantages and disadvantage of internal environment for LV on firm level The advantages of LV on firm level mainly lie in its good brand image, abundant product portfolio, wide expansion in the China markets covering most of the first- and second-tier cities, and its control on the designs of products. This can be told from the following aspects.Above all, LV enjoys a good reputati on of high quality and excellent services that it has occupied the first place of the 2012 Hurun Ranking of the Top ten luxury brands in the world (see Appendix 1), in which LV beats Hermes, the second in the list by nearly 43%. Also, LV offers manual crafting designed products which are special for certain customers. Whats more, it offers permanent after-sale serves to its customers (Paul, 2012, p79). In terms of geographical expansion, LV has reached many areas of China (Exhibit 2).

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Architectural Design Considerations of a Light Warehouse Essay Example for Free

Architectural number Considerations of a Light W behouse Essay w behousing warehousing is the receiving, retentivity, and delivery of goods. Receiving receiving is the acceptance of goods with a degree of accountability therefor. Storage fund is the safekeeping of goods in a store or other depository. Delivery delivery is the transfer of goods to the transportation carrier or customer. Distribution distribution is a function of warehousing which includes the preparation and delivery of goods according to plan or special order. Supply chain efficiencies depend upon the efficiency of logistics including transportation and warehousing surgerys. Warehouse efficiencies depend upon a combination of storehouse warehouse design, layout, infrastructure, systems, process and people. Warehouse Design element aims to maximize the utility of quadriceps, equipment and efficiency of operations. We give briefly cover the several(a) elements of a warehouse design and understand t heir importance. In basic operative eyeshots, a warehouse function consists of Material receipts including unloading, unpacking and inspection, put away and Storage of materials in various categories of storage locations, systems updating, pull materials for dispatch and delivery of materials after bear upon.Warehouse Location, Layout and Building The location of a warehouse should ide every last(predicate)y be situated in a flat ground. The location should be easily r each(prenominal) commensurate and in a area suited for this nature of business. Locations endingr to markets or to national utmostways would be ideal. man transportation and communication infrastructure should also be available. The layout of the building should be designed to accommodate blow over parking, and enable containers to drive in and drive out easily. Any time two containers should be able to pass through on the path without any interruption.There should be enough free office for vehicles to maneuv er. The layout should also provide for other utility, safety and security operations. Building is conveningly constructed using galvanized metallic sheets attach on C Section girdles. The flooring should be RCC concrete with weight bearing capacity as per requirement of the load to be calculated in each shift. The ground should be flat, even and down surface to facilitate MHE actuatements and dust free. The roof height would be a major consideration to be able to install multi good storage racking installation.The walls and roof should be designed with suitable illuminate panels and ventilators for air exchange drop deadted with bird cages. The number of loading and unloading docs and placement of these docs play an important federal agency in the design of operations and efficiency of operation. All weather docks and the facility should enable 24 hours operations. bobber Levels. The docks should be equipped with dock aimers and all these have to be installed during const ruction phase itself. Ramps have to be provided to facilitate movement of forklift etc.Lighting design impart depend upon the layout and the racking design. privileged Layout Internal layout design will be built taking into account the operational process, nature of goods, volumes of transactions some(prenominal) inbound and outbound, storage types, in house operations involving put away and pull sequences and process requirements including packing, kitting etc and the approachability of floor pose coupled with building layout design of inbound and outbound docks. The design aims to maximize space utilization, minimize MHE movement and Manpower movement.Types of Storage Types of storage are determined by the nature of dispatch. Depending upon the cargo whether finished goods, raw material parts etc, the types of storage arouse vary from bulk stock, block stock, racking, pallet racking, shelf racking, binning, unit natural selection or loose pick face, carton pick etc. The s torage types vary with nature of materials with different types of storage designs for drums, pallets, tires, cartons, tube and rods etc. wrenching Designs Material Handling EquipmentRacking Design takes into account the storage type, storage unit, volume and weight coupled with the available floor space and roof height to design system which maximizes the storage capacity. Put away and cream process and transactional volumes are also taken into consideration. The armoury profile study would include detailing of number of SKUs in each category of fast moving, slow moving or other criteria as per the nature of business and the storage type would be designed as per the inventory profile and the process.Racking designs are very many and varies with the type of industries and nature of inventory. Normal racking designs include pallet racking on multiple levels. You can have shelving, binning or combination of bulk stock and forward pick face racking designs. shutdown stack racking and other types of high density racking can be found in FG warehouses. Mezzanine store binning and shelving rack designs are normally designed for spare parts and small parts. passing automated racking designs can have automatic retrieval systems and conveyors in the warehouse.Material Handling Equipments are specified based on rack design coupled with pallet design, nature of cargo, weight and the warehouse layout etc. Forklifts, reach trucks, hand pallet jacks, trolleys are normal Material handling equipments in normal warehousing operations. Warehouse Layout Design size of it the Space Requirements Warehouse layout sizing is a critical aspect of planning a young facility or re-designing an existing building. Many times organisations start from a fixed view of what size the facility will be, and most times the square footage is based on affordability.The problem with this, is that the building may end up be to big, and therefore more expensive or to small and put operational constraints into the facility before the design even gets off the ground. Warehouse Layout and Sizing The correct way to size the facility is from the inside, that way the actual size required will fit the operational requirements, and will ensure that all available space is used and you are non salaried for unused space. Estimating Space Requirements Short and long term, based upon forecasts, historical usage patterns, and projected changes.Developing new layouts to maximize usage of space. Short- and long-range sizing of individual areas racks, shelving, automated systems, docks, staging, offices, and support. The final sizing leases to father from the operational requirements of the building, this can only come from modelling the design. Key Factors to Consider during Warehouse Sizing assemble Picking Methods for Piece Pick, Case Pick, and Pallet Pick Operations. Deciding on the amount of space you will need is not just about how much product you wish to store. The type of p icking you imagine carrying out is a fundamental part of the decision process.The methods for order picking vary greatly and the level of difficulty in choosing the best method for your operation will depend on the type of operation you have. The characteristics of the product being handled, total number of transactions, total number of orders, picks per order, quantity per pick, picks per SKU, total number of SKUs, value-added processing such as private labelling, and whether you are handling piece pick, case pick, or full-pallet loads are all factors that will affect the decision on how much space will be required. because when you have- Full pallet picking you will need more racking space than brusk floor space. Lots of case picking you will need more ground floor pick faces, than you will need for full pallet picking and you may also need a case to pallet consolidation floor area. Lots of small quantity piece picking you will need packing pallet consolidation areas on the flo or. Holding requirements include defining the corporeal size of the inventory on hand.Unless the on-hand total is fairly stable across the year, it is usually preferable to plan for a high but not peak inventory level. To fully utilize the space, it is important to determine how product inescapably to be stored (e. g. , floor stacked, pallet rack, shelving, case flow) and how much of each fixture type will be required. Cube data (length ? width ? height) for each product is a very useful kind of breeding for many aspects of capacity planning. Workflow requirements encompass everything from how product arrives to how it leaves the facility and everything in between.The objectives of this aspect of planning are to minimize product handling, to reduce travel as much as possible, and to minimize the resource requirements (labor, packaging, transportation) to move the product to the customer. Among the factors to consider are the following (1) Link the way product arrives with where i t is to be stored (location capacity). If possible, store all of a product in one location and pick from that location as well. This does not shape if stock rotation matters (expiration dates, serial number, or lot control issues). 2) Locate the highest-volume products (greatest number of orders, not physical size) closest to the outbound shipping area to minimize the travel required to pick and ship orders for them. (3) Because vertical travel is always slower, locate as many products as possible on or close to the floor. (4) Allow for staging space to handle product that is in transit, such as items waiting to be put away. Warehousing was supposed to disappear with Lean Manufacturing. This has rarely occurred but the nature of warehousing a good deal does change from storage-dominance to transaction dominance.Warehousing buffers inbound committals from suppliers and outbound orders to customers. Customers usually order in patterns that are not compatible with the capabilities o f the warehouse suppliers. The amount of storage depends on the disparity between incoming and outbound shipment patterns. In addition, the trend to overseas sourcing has increased the need for warehousing and its importance in the supply chain. Design StrategiesOne key to effective design is the relative dominance of picking or storage activity. These two warehouse functions have opposing requirements.Techniques that maximize space utilization tend to complicate picking and render it wasteful while large storage areas increase distance and also reduce picking efficiency. Ideal picking requires small stocks in dedicated, close locations. This works against storage efficiency. Automation of picking, storage, handling and information can settle for these opposing requirements to a degree. However, automation is expensive to install and operate. The figure below shows how different transaction volumes, storage requirements and technologies lead to different design concepts.

Monday, April 8, 2019

Merger and Acquisition Essay Example for Free

Merger and Acquisition EssayIndian employment nubsIn India the business summation movement is generally divided on political lines. According to provisionary statistics from the Ministry of Labour, consider mergers had a combine rank of 24,601,589 in 2002. As of 2008, there are 11 commutation Trade br oppositehood Organizations (CTUO) accepted by the Ministry of Labour These are different recognized Central Trade organizations all told India Central Council of Trade Unions entirenessly India Central Council of Trade Unions, a central wad league federation in India. AICCTU is politically attached to Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation. According to doubtful statistics from the Ministry of Labour, AICCTU had a membership of 639,962 in 2002.The committed joins of all in all India Central Council of Trade Unions are* All India Agrarian Labourers Association * All India Construction Workers confederacy * Bengal Chatkal Mazdoor compact is a trade un ion of jute mill fiddleers in West Bengal, India.1 The union is committed to the All India Central Council of Trade Unions. * Bunkar Mahasabha is a trade union of weavers in Varanasi, India. Bunkar Mahasabha was seduceed in 2001 * Rajasthan Nirman Mazdoor Sangathan (Rajasthan Construction Workers Organization) is a trade union of construction manoeuvreers in Rajasthan, India. RNMS is consort to All India Central Council of Trade Unions. The President of RNMS is Shrilata Swaminathan.* The Tamil Nadu participatory Construction Labour Union is a trade union of construction workers in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. TNDCLU is affiliated with the All India Central Council of Trade Unions. TNDCLU hopes to increase its membership to 15,000 during 2005. * Indo Japan Air Services rung Union (IJASSU) is a registered staff union of Indo Japan Air Services Private Limited (a hundred% subsidiary of Japan Airlines Comp any Limited) under the Indian Trade Unions Act 1926 having registration no. F-10/RTU/E/06/11. Indo Japan Air Services Staff Union is affiliated to All India Central Council of Trade Unions* All India General Kamgar Union* Building Workers Union* DTC Unity centralize* Mahila Kamgar Union* Khet Mazdoor SabhaAll India Trade Union sexual congressThe All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) is the oldest trade union federations in India and one of the quintuple largest. According to provisional statistics from the Ministry of Labour, AITUC had a membership of 2,677,979 in 2002. It was founded on 31 October 1920 in Bombay by Lala Lajpat Rai and a a few(prenominal) others and, until 1945 when unions became organised on party lines, it was the primary trade union organisation in India. Since hence it has been associated with the Communist Party of India. AITUC is governed by a body headed by national President Ramedra Kumar and General secretarial abetant Gurudas Dasgupta, both the politician affiliated with Communist Party of India. AITUC is a founder m ember of the World Federation of Trade Unions. Today, its institutional records are part of the Archives at the Nehru Memorial Museum Library, at Teen Murti House, Delhi succeeding(a) are the affiliated unions to the All India Trade Union Congress* Andhra Pradesh Auto Rickshaw Drivers and Workers Federation,. a trade union of auto rickshaw drivers in Andhra Pradesh, India. APARDWF is affiliated to the All India Trade Union Congress * Andhra Pradesh mica Mine Workers Union A.P. Mica Mine Workers Union, a trade union of mica mine labourers in the Gudur minesfields in Andhra Pradesh, India. APMMU is affiliated to All India Trade Union Congress. APMMU claims a membership of 1200 out of a total of 7000 workers. Andhra Pradesh is one of the three leading areas where mica is mined in India. India produces roughly 62% of the worlds mica tho now in recent years other materials substituting mica in its main applications ( much(prenominal) as electronics) corroborate impacted the price a nd mining of mica in India. * Calcutta Hawkers Men Union is a trade union of hawkers in Kolkata. CHMU was founded in 1971. CHMU is affiliated to All India Trade Union Congress. Its membership is mainly based amongst feed vendors.* Federation of Chatkal Mazdoor Unions, a trade union of jute mill workers in West Bengal, India. The union is affiliated to the All India Trade Union Congress. The general secretary of FCMU is Debasish Dutta * Nikhila Orissa Beedi Shramika Federation (All Orissa Beedi Workers Federation), a trade union in Orissa, India, organizing women beedi workers. NOBSF is affiliated to the All India Trade Union Congress. * Patiala zephyr Club Workers Union, a trade union organizing workers at the Patiala Aviation Club in Patiala, Punjab, India. political action committeeWU is affiliated to the All India Trade Union Congress. The president of PACWU is Balinder Kumar Sharma. In the period of 1999-2001 PAC workers were non paid salaries for over two years, something th at was highlighted by the PACWU.* Pondicherry Textile Labour Union, a trade union of textile workers in Puducherry, India. PTLU is affiliated to the All India Trade Union Congress. The secretary of PTLU is V.S. Abishegam. * Powerloom Workers Union, a trade union of powerloom workers in Andhra Pradesh, India. PWU is affiliated to the All India Trade Union Congress. The president of PWU is S. Mallesham. * Punjab Breweries Workers Union, a trade union of brewery workers in Punjab, India. PBWU is affiliated to the All India Trade Union Congress. The president of PBWU is gurbir singh and the general secretary Kishan Chand* Vegetable Market Workers Union, a trade union in Andhra Pradesh, India. VMWU is affiliated to the All India Trade Union Congress. The president of VMWU is Moulana. * Visakha Steel Workers Union, a trade union of steel workers at Visakhapatnam Steel Plant, in Visakhapatnam, India. VSWU is affiliated with the All India Trade Union Congress. In March 2008 VSWU, contesting union elections in coalition with the CITU-affiliated Steel Plant Employees Union, regained the union recognition at the plant. The AITUC-CITU front won 6,597 votes against 4,361 votes for the INTUC-affiliated Visakha Steel Employees Congress.All India fall in Trade Union CentreThe All India United Trade Union Centre (AIUTUC), formerly known as United Trade Union Centre (Lanin Sarani) or UTUC-LS, is a Central Trade Union Organisation in India and the labour wing of the state-controlled Unity Centre of India (Communist). Presently its activities are spread over 19 states. The organisation claims to have 600 affiliated unions, comprising an individual membership of over two million. It is the 6th largest trade union in India. According to provisional statistics from the Ministry of Labour, UTUC-LS had a membership of 1,368,535 in 200 HistoryAll India UTUC was founded at a conference held in Kolkata 2627 April 1958, following a split in the United Trade Union Congress. ab initio it used the name UTUC, but in the general media it was referred to as UTUC (Dharamtala Street) (where it had its offices) to distinguish it from the original UTUC. In 1969, at the initiative of Subodh Banerjee, West Bengal State Committee President of the organisation and PWD Minister in anti-Congress United search Government in the state, the name of the street was changed to Lenin Sarani.Thus the new name of the organisation became UTUC (Lenin Sarani). In the seventeenth UTUC(LS) conference held in Delhi in 1985 the organisation was renamed as United Trade Union Centre (Lenin Sarani). In the 18th conference held in 1992 in Calcutta Lenin Sarani was un-bracketed, implying that it no longer referred to the name of the street where the office is regain but became an integral part of the name of the organisation which was thereafter known as United Trade Union Centre-Lenin Sarani (UTUC-LS). The 19th all India conference of the organization held in Delhi on 27 March 2008 O.K. the chan ge of name to All India United Trade Union Centre (All India UTUC)ActivitiesThe All India UTUC is functioning in both formal and informal sectors. In informal sector, the most important segment where it has been working from the really inception is agriculture. In the formal sectors All India UTUC has unions, federations and activities in basic, heavy and key industries and important answer sectors resembling Iron and Steel, Engineering, Electricity, Coal and Non-Coal Mines, Railways, Port and Dock, Road-Transport, Banks and Financial Institutions, Insurance, Central and State Government Services. On the basis of its membership strength All India UTUC has been recognised as a Central Trade Union Organisation by the Government of India and has its representations in apex level tripartite committees as well as in transnational Labour Conferences (ILC) of the ILO.Bharatiya Mazdoor SanghThe Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (Indian Workers Union) is the largest central trade union organizatio n in India. It was founded by Dattopantji Thengdi on July 23, 1955, which also happens to the natal day of Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The BMS itself claims to have over 8.3 million members. At present it is estimated around 5860 unions are affiliated to the BMS. According to provisional statistics from the Ministry of Labour, the BMS had a membership of 6,215,797 in 2002.It can also be noted that the BMS is not affiliated to any International Trade Union Confederation.HistoryBMS was founded on 23 July 1955 the day organism the birth anniversary of Lok Manya Bal Gangadhar Tilak veteran of Freedom Movement. Two important aspects stand out in connection with this (a) Formation of BMS was not the result of split in the existing trade union organisations, dissimilar in the case of well-nigh all other trade unions. Hence it had the formidable responsibility of building its organisational structure from the grass infrastructure level. It started from zero having no trade union, no membershi p, no activist (karyakarta), no office and no fund. (b) On the very first day it was visualised as a trade union whose base-sheet anchors would be Nationalism, would work as a genuine trade union, keeping itself scrupulously away from party politics. This was also unlike other trade unions which were linked to one or the other political party, overtly or otherwise.Aims and accusing(a) To establish ultimately the Bharatiya order of community in which there shall be secured among other things i. Complete consumption of manpower and resources leading to full employment and maximal production. ii. Replacement of profit motive by service motive and establishment of economical democracy resulting in equitable distribution of wealth to the best favour of all individual citizens and of the national as a whole. iii. Development of autonomous industrial communities forming part and bundle of the nation, culminating in Labourisation of industry iv. Provision of work with living wage to every individual through maximum industrialisation of the nation. (b) With a view to enable the workers to strive successfully for the ultimate realisation of the above objects and to uphold them, in the meanwhile, to build up their own contribution to the cause of protecting and promoting their interest consistent with those of the community v. To assist workers in organising themselves in trade unions as a medium of service to the motherland irrespective of faiths and political affinities.vi. To guide, alarmingct, supervise and coordinate the activities of the affiliated unions. vii. To assist the affiliated unions in the formation of state BMS units and Industrial Federations as constituent units of the BMS and viii. To bring about unity in the trade union movement. (c) To secure and preserve for the workers ix. The even off to work, the right for security of service and for social security, the right to conduct trade union activities and the right to pass as a last resort a fter having exhausted other legitimate methods of trade unionism for redressal of grievances. x. Improvement in conditions of work, life and social and industrial status. xi. A living wage consistent with a national minimum and due share in the profits in their respective industries as partners. xii. other(a) appropriate amenitiesxiii. Expeditious enforcement and appropriate amendment of existing labour legislation in their interest and xiv. transit of new labour laws from time to time in consultation with the labour representatives. (d) To inculcate in the minds of the workers the tint of service, cooperation and dutifulness and develop in them a sense of responsibility towards the nation in general and industry in particular (e) To educate the labour by organising workers training var.es, study circles, guest lectures, seminars, symposia, excursions etc., in cooperation with institutions and organisations having similar aims and objects such as the Central Board of Workers Ed ucation. Labour Research Centre, Universities etc., and also to maintain libraries. (f) To reveal or cause publication of journals, periodicals, pamphlets, pictures, books and many other types of literature mainly concerning labor and their interests and to purchase, sell spread them.(g) To establish, encourage and organize Labor Research Centers and similar activities. (h) Generally to presume such other travel as may be necessary to ameliorate the social, economic, cultural, civic and general conditions of the workers. For sound health of workers and society BMS has been against the use of any type of drugs, liquor, alcohol and smoking. (i) To render assistance or to establish cooperative societies, welfare institutions, clubs etc., for the overall welfare of the common man in general and the workers and their families in particular.National Labour daytimeIndia has a heritage of thousands of year where the dignity of labour as well as those of labourers was well established . The dire need of the hour is to re-establish the same the Dignity of Labour by observing our own labour day. As also, most of the Nations have their National Labour Day. National Labour Day was rediscovered to be on Vishwakarma Jayanti, Vishwakarma, being the first craftsman artisan, sculptor, and engineer and in fact the traditional symbol of hard labour. This falls on Kanya Sankranti of each year. BMS, since its inception, has been observing Vishwakarma Jayanti on 17 September of English Calendar Year as National Labour Day. While functioning since 1955 it has given to the labour movement new slogans benefiting its ideology* Bharat Mata Ki Jai* We give work in the interest of the country and will take full wage for the work through (Desh ki hit me kam karenge, kam ki lenge poore dham) * The sacrifice, penance and martyrdom are identification of BMS (BMS ki kya pehchan, Tyag, Tapasya aur Balidan) * Understand the apprise of Capital and Labour is equal and same (Paise aur pa sine ki kimmat samjo ek samaan). * Workers unite the world (Mazdooron duniya ko ek karo)* Industrialise the nation, nationalise the Labour, Labourise the Industry (Rashtra Udyogikaran, Sharamik ka Rashtriyakaran, Udyog ka Mazdoorikaran) * Bonus to all wage earners as deferred wage (Sabi Vetanbogiyonko der se diya hua vetan ki roop me bonus) * retain discrimination. Income-ratio should be one and ten. (Bed-bhav bandh karo. Aay ka anupath Ek aur Dus ho) New trends in the trade union movementBMS has contributed quite a few new ideas which have virtually become trend setters. The non-political nature of BMS has now gained currency and has become refreshing not only in India but also abroad. The XII World Trade Union Congress of WFTU, held in Moscow, in 1990, adopted a document to this effect. BMS doesnt believe in class concept and rejects the class theory propounded by Marx. Instead its struggle and fight is against the injustice on workers from whatever quarters. Being non-politic al, its position towards any democratically elected government is governed by the principle of Responsive Co-operation. BMS idea of Labourisation of Industries a power point where workers would collectively own and manage the industrial units has initiated a national debate on it. This experiment has been successfully undertaken in New Central Jute Mills, West Bengal.New Economic insurance (NEP) and New Industrial Policy (NIP)While opposing the above policies BMS was first to give slogan for 2nd war of economic independence. At the same time it has suggested some positive alternatives. It has vigorously condemned the object surrender to the conditionality of the IMF and WB as that would gist to giving up our sovereignty. BMS considers the movement as an opportunity to build up Swadeshi Model of Economy. Hence it has inspire movement for the use of Swadeshi (Indigenous) Products as against the foreign or MNC products. It has offered to cooperate in turning the loss reservation PSUs profitable where practicable, it has agreed to induce the workers to take up their unit to run them on sound lines.To defend excessive profiteering, which is the main culprit behind price rise it has suggested that the Government should take steps to bring forth the consumer aware of the cost of production of each product to daily use. This awareness will serve as a watch dog to restrain the prices. BMS is also of the view that for creating enough job opportunities, agricultural phylogenesis should get much attention as also agro-based and small and tiny industries. Vishwakarma Sector (Self-employment sector) should get more encouragement than at present. On modern technology, BMS while not being antagonistic would prefer exploitation our own technology based on indigenous and traditional knowledge to best suit our conditions. From this wobble national technology policy should be drawn.Indian National Trade Union CongressIndian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) is the trade union wing of the Indian National Congress. It was founded whitethorn 3, 1947, and is affiliated with the International Trade Union Confederation Objectives of INTUCTo establish an order of society which is free from restraint in the way on an all round development of its individual members, which fosters the growth of human genius in all its aspects and goes to the utmost limit in progressively eliminating social political or economic exploitation and inequality, the profit motive in the economic activity and organization of society and the anti-social concentration in any form. To place industry under national ownership and control in suitable form in order to realize the aforesaid objectives in the quickest time. * To organize society in such a manner as to ensure full employment and the best utilization of its manpower and other resources. * To secure increasing association of the worker in the administration of industry and their full participation in its control.* To promote generally the social civic and political interest of the working class to secure an impressive and complete organization of all categories of workers, including agricultural labour. * To guide and co-ordinate the activities of the affiliated organizations. * To assist and co-ordinate the activities of the affiliated organizations. * To assist in the formation of trade unions. * To promote the organization of workers of each industry on a nation-wide basis. * To assist in the formation of Regional or Pradesh Branches or Federations. * To secure speedy improvement of conditions of work and life and of the status of the workers in industry and society. * To obtain for the workers various measures of social security, including adequate provision in respect of accidents, maternity, sickness, old age and unemployment.* To secure a living wage for every worker in normal employment and to bring about a progressive improvement in the workers standard of living. * To influence hours and other conditions of work in keeping with the conditions of the workers and to ensure the proper enforcement of legislation for the protection and up-lift of labour. * To establish just industrial relations. * To secure redressal of grievances, without stoppages of work, by means of negotiations and conciliation and failing these by arbitration or adjudication.* To take recourse to other legitimate method, including strikes or any suitable form of satyagraha, where adjudication is not applied and resolving of disputes within a reasonable time by arbitration is not available for the redress of grievances. * To make necessary arrangements for the efficient conduct satisfactory and speedy conclusion of authorized strikes or satyagraha. * To foster the whole step of solidarity, service, brotherhood co-operation and mutual help among the workers. * To develop in the workers a sense of responsibility towards the industry and community. * To put together the workers standard of effi ciency and discipline.