Saturday, March 2, 2019

Qualitative Analysis

Qualitative abbreviation 1. Abstract Qualitative Analysis helps to tabooline the bonce complicateds ( cations and anions) which be presented in a season ( unbendable and in a dissolver). The investigateal procedures show the identity of the internality but non the list of the present agents. 2. Introduction The construction of loft salt is found on a certain cation and a certain anion. To bum about to receipt the dickens different agents of the salt, the anions and cations has to be maro one(a)d.For the separation the ionic salt has to be unmake by chemical answer to pop off the unmarried elements and compounds. A sensual reaction grass only change the conditions of the salt ( unattackable or placid) but not the structure of the educt. Every element and compound has feature film reactions where the identity can be figured off by analyzing the out coming educt by its color, its odor, its precipitation and its solubility. The fol first baseing experiment is separated in two parts.In the first part of the experiment, it has to be shown the different typical reaction with the cations (Na+, K+,NH4+,Mg2+,Cu2+,Ag+,Ba2+,Sr2+) and the anions ( Cl-, Br-, CO32-, SO42-, F-). In the following part thither was an un have sexn ionic salt to analyze which is built out of one cation and one anion from above. 3. Materials and Methods 1. Materials try out tubes Bunsen Burner ravel tubes rack Pasteur pipette Di chill outed water ionic salts NaOH SO4-2 NH4 HCl AgNO3 2. MethodsThere are several experiments to analyze the compounds and elements of an ionic salt 1 beam Test (for solid substance) for optically determine the identity of an metallic agent in the ionic salt by the different color Heating offspring ( for fluid substance) heating can cause the separation of a substance include odor development and color changing. This is given by nitrate, carbonade and sulfite ions solubility in water Almost all of the ionic salts are alcoh ol-soluble in water rushing ( for fluid substance) A precipitate depart spirt with a certain cation/ anion an insoluble substance.Characteristic precipitate will glowering out 4. Results 1. Different characteristic reaction with the cations (Na+, K+,NH4+,Mg2+,Cu2+,Ag+,Ba2+,Sr2+, Ca2+) and the anions ( Cl-, Br-, CO32-, SO42-, F-) Flame raise o Na+ light chicken break open o K+ violet scorch o Cu2+ yellow-orange, darker flame than the flame of Na+ o Ba2+ squirt flame in the beginning, after a little piece of music the flame is turning yellow Heating effect NH4+ + OH- ( NH3 (g) + H2O The ammonia water (g) smells guardedly and changes the color of a red litmus paper into non-white Precipitation o Cl- + AgNO3 ( AgCl (s) + NO3, ( gabardine prec. o Br- + AgNO3 ( AgBr (s) + NO3, ( light yellow prec. ) o I- + AgNO3 ( Agl (s) + NO3, ( yellow prec. ) o Ca2+ + CO32- ( CaCO3 (s), ( white prec. ) o SO42- + BaCl2 ( BaSO4 (s) + 2Cl-, (white prec. ) o CO32- + HCl ( carbon dioxide (g)+. , ( bubbels can be seen) o Mg2+ + 2NaOH ( Mg(OH)2 (s) + Na+, (white prec. ) o Sr2+ + 2NaOH ( Sr(OH)2 (s) + Na+, (white prec. ) 2. Unknown last tactile sensation of the salt o Shape little grains o disguise white o Smell no clear smell Kation o Flame test light yellow (= Na) o Control X+ OH- ( no prec. (Kation Na+ Anion o X + AgNO3 ( white-brown prec. Control Br-/ I- + AgNO3 ( yellow prec. ( = I- / Br-) o 1. X + SO42- ( no visually reaction o 2. X + SO42- ( CO2 (g) end product ( bubbles visual) o X + HCl ( CO2 (g) production ( bubbles visual) ( Anion CO32- The foreigner salt is Na2CO3 5. parole The cation Na+ was easy to figure out because of its unmistakable color of the flame by holding into the Bunsen burner flame. It was more difficult to get to know the anion. The experiment with silvernitrat could be leading to a wrong conclusion. In the put back 1 is written that there is no reaction ( precipitation) in the experiment with AgNO3 and CO32-.It could be that the t est tube wasnt clean and there was still approximately undesirable rest of another element or compound. plain a single grain of I- could cause a precipitation. Another line of work to dumbfound the sort out anion was that the amount of our unknown salt was too low in our testing solution with acid sulfur. So there was no visual reaction with our unknown solution. barely the second time with a high amount of unknown salt in our testing solution there was a CO2 development. To be sure that this experiment is confident(p) the experiment was repeated with HCl. There was the CO2 development good visible. and then in the end the anion CO32- was proved. 6.Conclusion To do the right analyses it is very important not to avow a single experiment. Controls are very important to get the right elements and compounds. Also its very important to check wheather the equipment is clean. whatever single rest of an undesired substance can imitate the result. But these are good experiments to get to known unknown elements and compounds of an ionic salt. 7. References 1 tone ending aesculapian & Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Analytic Chemistry Laboratory, Winter Semester 2011 2J. E. Brandy, F. A. Sense, N. D. Jespersen, Chemistry. The Study of Matters and Its changes, internationalist mutation, 5. Edition 2008Qualitative AnalysisQualitative Analysis 1. Abstract Qualitative Analysis helps to analysis the ionic compounds ( cations and anions) which are presented in a salt (solid and in a solution). The experimental procedures show the identity of the substance but not the amount of the present agents. 2. Introduction The construction of ionic salt is based on a certain cation and a certain anion. To get to know the two different agents of the salt, the anions and cations has to be separated.For the separation the ionic salt has to be destroyed by chemical reaction to get the single elements and compounds. A physical reaction can only change the conditions of the salt ( solid or fluid) but not the structure of the educt. Every element and compound has characteristic reactions where the identity can be figured out by analyzing the out coming educt by its color, its odor, its precipitation and its solubility. The following experiment is separated in two parts.In the first part of the experiment, it has to be shown the different characteristic reaction with the cations (Na+, K+,NH4+,Mg2+,Cu2+,Ag+,Ba2+,Sr2+) and the anions ( Cl-, Br-, CO32-, SO42-, F-). In the following part there was an unknown ionic salt to analyze which is built out of one cation and one anion from above. 3. Materials and Methods 1. Materials Test tubes Bunsen Burner Test tubes rack Pasteur pipette Distilled water Ionic salts NaOH SO4-2 NH4 HCl AgNO3 2. MethodsThere are several experiments to analyze the compounds and elements of an ionic salt 1 Flame Test (for solid substance) for visually determine the identity of an metallic agent in the ionic salt by the different c olor Heating effect ( for fluid substance) heating can cause the separation of a substance included odor development and color changing. This is given by nitrate, carbonade and sulfite ions Solubility in water Almost all of the ionic salts are soluble in water Precipitation ( for fluid substance) A precipitate will form with a certain cation/ anion an insoluble substance.Characteristic precipitate will turned out 4. Results 1. Different characteristic reaction with the cations (Na+, K+,NH4+,Mg2+,Cu2+,Ag+,Ba2+,Sr2+, Ca2+) and the anions ( Cl-, Br-, CO32-, SO42-, F-) Flame test o Na+ light yellow flame o K+ violet flame o Cu2+ yellow-orange, darker flame than the flame of Na+ o Ba2+ green flame in the beginning, after a little while the flame is turning yellow Heating effect NH4+ + OH- ( NH3 (g) + H2O The ammonia (g) smells cautiously and changes the color of a red litmus paper into blue Precipitation o Cl- + AgNO3 ( AgCl (s) + NO3, ( white prec. o Br- + AgNO3 ( AgBr (s) + NO3, ( light yellow prec. ) o I- + AgNO3 ( Agl (s) + NO3, ( yellow prec. ) o Ca2+ + CO32- ( CaCO3 (s), ( white prec. ) o SO42- + BaCl2 ( BaSO4 (s) + 2Cl-, (white prec. ) o CO32- + HCl ( CO2 (g)+. , ( bubbels can be seen) o Mg2+ + 2NaOH ( Mg(OH)2 (s) + Na+, (white prec. ) o Sr2+ + 2NaOH ( Sr(OH)2 (s) + Na+, (white prec. ) 2. Unknown Determination Look of the salt o Shape little grains o Color white o Smell no clear smell Kation o Flame test light yellow (= Na) o Control X+ OH- ( no prec. (Kation Na+ Anion o X + AgNO3 ( white-brown prec. Control Br-/ I- + AgNO3 ( yellow prec. ( = I- / Br-) o 1. X + SO42- ( no visually reaction o 2. X + SO42- ( CO2 (g) production ( bubbles visual) o X + HCl ( CO2 (g) production ( bubbles visual) ( Anion CO32- The unknown salt is Na2CO3 5. Discussion The cation Na+ was easy to figure out because of its unmistakable color of the flame by holding into the Bunsen burner flame. It was more difficult to get to know the anion. The experiment with silvernitrat c ould be leading to a wrong conclusion. In the table 1 is written that there is no reaction ( precipitation) in the experiment with AgNO3 and CO32-.It could be that the test tube wasnt clean and there was still some undesirable rest of another element or compound. Even a single grain of I- could cause a precipitation. Another problem to find the right anion was that the amount of our unknown salt was too low in our testing solution with acid sulfur. So there was no visual reaction with our unknown solution. But the second time with a higher amount of unknown salt in our testing solution there was a CO2 development. To be sure that this experiment is positive the experiment was repeated with HCl. There was the CO2 development good visible. Thus in the end the anion CO32- was proved. 6.Conclusion To do the right analyses it is very important not to trust a single experiment. Controls are very important to get the right elements and compounds. Also its very important to check wheather t he equipment is clean. Any single rest of an undesired substance can imitate the result. But these are good experiments to get to known unknown elements and compounds of an ionic salt. 7. References 1 Handout Medical & Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Analytic Chemistry Laboratory, Winter Semester 2011 2J. E. Brandy, F. A. Sense, N. D. Jespersen, Chemistry. The Study of Matters and Its changes, International Edition, 5. Edition 2008

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